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port. — Brinton (D. G.) The aims of anthropology. Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sc. 1895, Salem, 1896, xliv, 1-17.-Brooks (W. K.) Lyell and Lamarck: a consideration for Lamarckians; an examination of Romanes' view of “ Characters as hereditary and acquired.” Nat. Sc., Lond., 1896, viii, 89–93. - 1lso, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., Balt., 1895-6, XV; 75; 78.—Buchner (M.) Zur Anatomie und Aesthetik bei den Japanern. Globus, Brnschwg., 1896, lxx, 21-24.--von Buchwald (G.) Atebar und Uhu im germanischen Elementargedanken. Ibid., Ixix, 255; 270.-von Bülow (W) Samoanische Sagen, gesammelt von ... Ibid., 322-327.

Das ungeschriebene Gesetz der Samoaner. Ibid., 191-195.—Burnett (S. M.) The influence of country and race in the etiology of trachoma. Ann. d'ocul., N. Y., 1896, cxv, 186–193.–Cesaresco (Evelyn M.) Folk-lore in stone. Am. Antiquarian, Good Hope, Ill., 1896, xviii, 158-160. -- Chudzinski (T.) Sur les plis cérébraux d'un aye-ave (Cheiromys, Mysipithecus ou singe rat). Bull. Soc. d'anthrop. de Par., 1896, 4. s., vii, 12-20.–Cognetti de Martiis. La psicologia di un delinqnente nato. Arch. di psichiat. [etc.], Torino, 1896, xvii, 308-310.Colin (L.) Le village africain exbibé an Champ-de-Mars. Ann. d'hyg., Par., 1896, 3.s., XXXV, 51-65. -Cunningham (J.) Lyell and Lamarckism ; a reply. Nat. Sc., Lond., 1896, viii, 326-331. Also, Johns Hopkins Univ. Cire., Balt., 1895–6, xv, 76–78. ---Cushing (F. H.) The

Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sc. 1895, Salem, 1896, xliv, 199–240. Also, Am. Anthrop., Wash., 1895, viii, 307–349. Dumas (G.)

Recherches expérimentales sur la joie et la tristesse. Rev. phil., Par., 1896, xli, 377; xlii, 24.-Dumoutier (G.) Étude sur l'inscription de Témiya, dans l'île de Gézo. Anthropologie, Par., 1896, vii, 147-1.52.-d'Enjoy (P.) La médecine et la magie en Indo-Chine; hommes de l'art et visionnaires. Rev. scient., Par., 1896, 4. s., v, 778-783.- Féré (C.) La main, la préhension et le toucher.

Rev. phil., Par., 1896, xli, 621-636.

- Fletcher (Alice C.) Indian songs and music. Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sc. 18:55, Salem, 1896, xliv, 281-284.

Frobenius (L.) Stilgerechte Phantasie. Internat. Arch. f. Ethnog., Leiden, 1896, ix, 129-136.– de la Grasserie (R.) De l'involution et de l'ordre respectif des idées révélés par le langage. Rev. phil., Par., 1896, xli, 602-620.Hahn (C.) Kaukasische Dorfanlagen und Haustypen. Globus, Brnschwg., 1896, Ixix, 251; 267.Haliburton (R. G.) Dwarf survivals, and traditions as to pygmy

Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sc. 1895, Salem, 1896, xliv, 285–296. – Hamy (E. T.) Les races malaiques

et américaines. Anthropologie, Par., 1896, vii, 129. — de Harlez (C.) L'ethnographie du midi de la Chine; ses populations préhistoriques. Muséon, Louvain, 1896, xv, 136; 213.-Hewitt (J. F.) How the first priests, the long-haired Shamans, and their successors, the tonsured barbersurgeons, measured time: a historical study. Westminster Rev., Lond., 1896, cxlvi, 23–33.-Hewitt (J. N. B.) The cosmogonic gods of the Iroquois. Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sc., 1895, Salem, 1896, xliv, 241–250.—Holmes (W. H.) Archæological studies among the ancient cities of Mexico. Am. Antiquarian, Good Hope, Ill., 1896, xviii, 137-143, 2 pl.-Ingegno, epilessia, eccedenza di maschi; appunti su di una famiglia di agricoltori. Arch. di psichiat. [etc.], Torino, 1896, xvii, 270-278.-Jodle (F.) On the origin and import of the idea of causality. Monist, Chicago, 18995--6, vi, 517-533.-Kaindl (R. F.) Viehzucht und Viehzauber in den Ostkarpaten. Globus, Brnschwg., 1896, lxix, 385-389,-Kant (A. B.) Adams's law of civilization and decay. Bachelor of Arts, N. Y., 1896, ii, 223-241.-Kellen (T.) Neue Beiträge zurelsässischen Volkskunde. Globus, Brnschwg., 1896, Ixix, 257-260.-Kingsley (C.) Heredity and education. Atlantic M. Weekly, Providence, 1896, vi, 17-25.-Knox (T. W.) East In

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dian folk-lore: adventures of the xviii, 174–180.JPelman. RassenBrahmin Kala Sarma. Am. Anti- verbesserung und natürliche Ausquarian, Good Hope, Ill., 1896, xviii, lese. Centralb).f. allg. Gsndhtspflg., 153–158.-Krahmer. Ueber jukagi- Bonn, 1896, xv, 190–204.-Pieracrische Briefe. Globus, Brnschwg., cini (A.) Grado estremo di dolicoce1896, lxix, 208-211.-Krause (G. A.) falia. Arch. di psichiat. [etc.], ToMerkwürdige Sitten der Haussa. rino, 1896, xvii, 276-279. – Pinsero Ibid., 373–375.—Lagneau (G.) Sur (N.) La delinquenza occulta. Ibid., l'épaisseur du crâne. Bull. Acad. de 243-259.-Pleyte(C.M. (Das Kwakméd., Par., 1896, 3. s., XXXV, 689.- wabank der Buschneger Surinams. Letourneau (C.) Passé, présent et Globus, Brnschwg., 1896, Ixix, 370. avenir de l'éducation. Rev. mens.de -Putnam (F. W.) and C. C. Will'École d'anthrop. de Par., 1896, vi, loughby. Symbolism in ancient 129–148.-McGuire (J. D.) Classi- American art. Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. • fication and development of primi- Sc. 1895, Salem, 1896, xliv, 302– tive implements. Am. Anthrop., 322.-Reed (V. Z.) The Ute bear Wash., 1896, ix, 227-236.—Manou- dance. Am. Anthrop., Wash,, 1896, vrier (L.) & Pokrowsky. Étude ix, 237-244, 2 pl. - Regnault (F.) des ossements et crânes humains de Rites funéraires. Bull. Soc. d'anla sépulture néolithique de Chalons- throp. de Par., 1896, 4. s., vii, 31sur-Marne. Rev. mens, de l'École 34.-Reinach (S.) La sculpture d'anthrop. de Par., 1896, vi, 161- en Europe avant les influences 193.—Mathews (B. C.) Sociology gréco-romaine. Anthropologie, in ethical education. Pop. Sc. Par., 1894, v, 15; 173; 288: 1895, Month., N. Y., 1896, xlix, 373-381. vi, 18; 293 ; 549; 662; 1896, vii, -Matignon (J. J.) Les eunuques 168.-Richter (C.) Moderne Steckdu palais impérial de Pékin. Arch. briefe: kriminalistische Skizze. clin. de Bordeaux, 1896, v, 193–204, Gartenlaube, Leipz., 1896, 287–290. 1 pl. ---Moser (K.) Einst bewohnte -Ritter (W. E.) The part played Felshöhlen des Karstes im öster- by the inferior animals in lifting reichischen Litorale. Globus, men out of savagery. Pacific M. J., Brnschwg., 1896, lxix, 302-306.- San Fran., 1896, xxxix, 337-314.Müller (M.) Coincidences. Fort- Rolleston (C.) The deserted city nightly Rev., Lond., 1896, n. 8., lx, of Vijayanagar. J. Soc. Arts, Lond., 48–69.-Munz (B.) La logique de 1896, xliv, 529-540.-Romain (G.) l'enfant. Rev. phil., Par., 1896, L'atelier de tranchets de la Couxlii, 46-54.-Niceforo (A.) Le draie, près Montivilliers (Seine-invarietà umane pigmee e microcefa- férieure). Rev. mens. de l'École liche della Sardegna. Atti d. Soc. d'anthrop. de Par., 1896, vi, 149. rom. di antrop., Roma, 1895-6, iii, -Roncoroni (L.) Sui caratteri 201-222.-Nuccio (P.) Gli Skoptzi. psichici fondamentali che distinArch. di psicopat. sess., Roma, 1896, guono il selvaggio e il delinquentei, 101-105.-Oppel (A.) Die alt- nato dall'uomo civile normale. mexikanischen Mosaiken. Globus, Arch. di psichiat. [etc.], Torino, Brnschwg., 1896, 1xx, 4-13.-Otto- 1896, xvii, 312 31+.-Rossi (V.) lenghi (S.) La sensazione cro- Studi sopra una seconda centuria matica nei pittori; contributo alla di criminali comparati con quelli casuistica dell'audizione colorato. della prima centuria. Ibid., 1895, Arch. di psichiat. [etc.], Torino, xv, 321; 497; 1896, xv, 210.–Sar1896, xvii, 310-312. - Pearson (K.) tori (P.) Die Sitte der NamensänContributions to the mathematical derung. Globus, Brnschwg., 1896,

eory of evolution; note on repro- Ixix, 224; 242.-Schmeltz (J. D. ductive selection. Proc. Roy. Soc. E.) Beiträge zur Ethnographie Lond., 1896, lix, 301-305. Also, J. von Neu-Guinea. Internat. Arch. Roy. Statist. Soc., Lond., 1896, lix, f. Ethnog., Leiden, 1896, ix, 113– 398–402.-Peet (S. D.) Astronom- 129, 3 pl.-Seidel (H.) Ethnoical symbols in America. Am. An- graphisches aus Nordost - Kametiquarian, Good Hope, Ill., 1896, run. (Mit Nachrichten von Selen

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mehrheit und Seelenessen.) Ibid.,

diloideo dell'omero in due crimi273-278.-Seler (E.) Götzendie- nali ed in una pazza. Attie rendic. nerei in den heutigen Indianern d. Accad. med.-chir. di Perugia, Mexikos. Ibid., 367-370.-Sighele 1896, viii, 168-173. – Vernau (R.) 1S.) La delinquenza settaria. Arch. De la pluralité des types ethniques di psichiat. [etc.], Torino, 1895, xvi, chez les Négrilles. Anthropologie, 381; 524; 1896, xvii, 217.- Simp- | Par., 1896, vii, 153-167. Docson (H. B.) Crime and punish- uments inédits sur Gall et sa collecment. Contemp. Rev., Lond., 1896, tion. Ibid., 191-198.- Ward (L. F.) Ixx, 91-108.--Smith (H. I.) Notes The social forces. Am. J. Sociol., on the data of Michigan archæ- Chicago, 1896, ii, 82-95.—Wiener. ology. Am. Antiquarian, Good Ergebnisse von Messungen an KinHope, Ill., 1896, xviii, 144-153.— dern. Abhandl. d. naturw. Ver. von Stenin (P.) Die Kirgisen des zu Karlsruhe (1888–95), 1896, xi, Kreises Saissansk im Gebiete von 98-101.

Ueber das WachSsemipalatinsk. Globus, Brnsch wg., sthum des menschlichen Körpers. 1896, Ixix, 2.27-230.-Stevens (H. Ibid., 22-43.-Wilmarth (A. W.) V.) Der Cholera-Zauber bei den Heredity as a social burden. Med. Těmia auf der Halbinsel Malâka. Age, Detroit, 1836, xiv, 387–392. — Ibid., 117; 137.-Tarde (G.) L'idée Wilser. Ueber Vererbungstheode l'organisme social. Rev. phil., rien. Abhandl. d. naturw. Ver. zu Par., 1896, xli, 637–616. – Topinard Karlsruhe (1888-95), 1896, xi, 2-0(P.) Science and faith; introduc- 214.-Zuccarelli (A.) e G. Maution to man as a member of society. ceri. Il 3o dente molare (cosidetto Monist, Chicago, 1895–6, vi, 534- del senno) della mascella superiore 579.-Tylor (E. B.) The matri- studiato in 271 crani in rapporto archal family system. Nineteenth con le anomalie craniche e con inCent., Lond., 1896, xl, 81-96.— dice cefalico. Atti d. Soc. rom. di Valenti (G.) Processo sopra con- antrop., Roma, 1895-6, iii, 223–240.

EXCAVATIONs are being conducted in a number of mounds by the Ohio State Archeological and Historical Society, under the direction of Mr W. K. Moorehead, and large collections, including many skeletons, have been unearthed.

DR HERMAN F. C. TEN KATE, having completed the publication of the report on his researches in the Indian archipelago, has been reappointed to his former position in the ethnological section of the Museo de la Plata, near Buenos Aires, Argentina.

THE CARNEGIE MUSEUM of Pittsburg has been excavating with some degree of success the McKee's Rock mound near that city.

EXTENSIVE RUINS have been discovered by Mr J. R. Reiley, of Boston, in the Sierra Madre, west of Jiminez, Mexico.

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With Special Reference to the System in Use in the Office of

the Surgeon General, U. S. Army

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DR C. H. ALDEN, ASSISTANT SURGEON GENERAL, V. S. ARMY

My purpose is not to enter into a general discussion of the identification of the individual nor of the various methods proposed for its accomplishment. Time would not permit, for the bibliography alone of this subject would occupy many pages, as an examination of the Catalogue of the Army Medical Library will show. I shall confine myself to a sketch of the system of identification of the individual soldier now in use in the Surgeon General's Office, indicating the necessity for it, the principles upon which it is based, an account of its practical workings and of the results obtained, and incidentally of the Bertillon system of anthropometry, with which the army system is to some extent allied.

It will doubtless be remembered what a serious embarrassment to the government the reënlistment of deserters, bountyjumpers, and other undesirable characters in the army became in the later stages of the civil war; how that, stimulated by the enormous bounties paid by towns and county governments and the large prices paid for substitutes, men would enlist and desert, repeating the process many times. As noted by Dr Robert Fletcher in his interesting paper on “ Tattooing," read before the Anthropological Society in 1882, an effort was made during the civil war, by marking men on discharge with nitrate of silver, to secure their detection at subsequent attempts at enlistment, but it had to be abandoned. Probably at that time, in view of the vast army then in service, the frequent changes, the hurry and confusion of actual warfare, no effective plan could have been carried out.

1 Read before the Anthropological Society of Washington, May 5, 1896. 40

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Familiar as we were with the existence of the evil during war times, one would hardly think that it could exist to any serious extent in peace and in our present army, yet this reënlistment of deserters and dishonorably discharged men became so frequent that in 1888 it was evident that something must be done to prevent it. The efforts that were being made and have continued to be made to procure men of better character for the army and to elevate the tone of the enlisted men added to the importance of keeping out of the ranks deserters and men who have been dishonorably discharged.

I quote one instance of “repeating " which has occurred since the identification system has been in use, else it would not have been known. It illustrates the persistence of these repeaters and at the same time the value of the method which has detected them.

Patrick Timlin enlisted February 28, 1891; was dishonorably discharged in the same year. He enlisted as William Swift, January 14, 1892; was identified by outline card and discharged promptly for fraudulent enlistment; again enlisted as James T. Casey, May 2, 1892; was again identified and again discharged for fraudulent enlistment; again enlisted as Thomas J. Casey, September 15, 1892; was identified and discharged for fraudulent enlistment. Lastly, he enlisted as James Pearson, May 25, 1894; was identified and dishonorably discharged, with confinement for one year.

The system of M. Alphonse Bertillon had already become known and undoubtedly suggested the army system now in use to Dr Charles R. Greenleaf and Dr Charles Smart, of the United States Army, who were then on duty in the Surgeon General's Office, and to whom the credit of devising and putting it into successful operation is due. Messrs B B. Thompson and Walter S. Kaye, clerks in the identification division of the Surgeon General's Office, are also entitled to much credit for their highly intelligent and efficient services in connection with the successful working of the system. The identification division of the Surgeon General's Office is now in charge of Major Smart.

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