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3.5 miles north of K there is an extreme variation of but 0.76 meters in elevation), the fact that it joins high ground at both ends, and its location at a point where it seems very unlikely that it could have been caused by natural agencies, all seemed to indicate that this remarkable earth work was of artificial construction, and such was the impression of almost every official of our party ; but, on the other hand, so gigantic is the workrequiring, if the western slope once continued as indicated by the dotted line in the distorted cross-sections, the handling of from 8,000,000 to 10,000,000 cubic yards of material—that it seems almost impossible that it could have been the work of human hands. Again, if constructed for a dam, one is at once struck by its extremely flat slopes and by the immense linear development of dam constructed to impound such a comparatively small volume of water.
One of our rodmen stated that from the summit of a small hill he thought he observed a continuation of this dam, or possibly another dam, several miles to the northwest and north of the one I have described. I myself thought I could faintly distinguish some such feature about eight miles north of monument 67.
[NOTE.—That the interesting structure described by Captain Gaillard is of artificial character will scarcely be doubted by any one acquainted with the remains of the extensive works of irrigation farther westward, in Salado and Gila valleys, Arizona. Here may readily be traced the distinct outlines of numerous canals of prehistoric origin, varying in width from five to twenty-five feet and in length from two or three to ten miles. See “Prehistoric Irrigation in Arizona," American Anthropologist, vol. vi, p. 323.-F. W. H.j
NEW DISCOVERIES IN EGYPT—THE TOMB OF QUEEN NOUBHOTEP.- Mr Morgan recently gave to the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres an interesting description of the recent discovery of a royal tomb in the pyramid of Dahchour. He said that “on the 19th of April I came across a door in the excavations, giving access to a long arched passage.” The door was opened with all necessary precautions, and exposed to view the various objects placed there by the priests of the twelfth dynasty or by the family of the dead. There were vases of clay still containing the slime of the water of the Nile; here pieces of embalmed flesh; farther on plates of dried viands. In an angle we found two coffers-one containing alabaster vases of perfume, carefully engraved with hieratic characters; the other, sceptres, canes, a mirror, and arrows with their barbs in an astonishing state of preservation. It was almost impossible to determine whether this was the tomb of a man or woman. It contained arms, as well as objects of the toilet. The only indication we could find was the seal used in closing the coffer of perfumes; it bore the name of the family of the king Tesch-Senbet-f. When all the numerous objects found had been sketched in their respective positions we began to open the sarcophagus. The stone being lifted disclosed a wooden coffin covered with gold leaf. An inscription in gold extended the whole length of the lid, giving the name and the title of the deceased, the Princess Noub-Hotep-ta Khroudil. The outer case of the coffin was also ornamented with gold leaf, and was of natural wood, with the bands of gold bearing the inscriptions lined out with a trace of green paint. The mummy had suffered very much from humidity, and nothing remained but a mass of bones and jewelry, inclosed in the ruins of the plaster envelope, which had been entirely gilded. The objects inclosed had never been disturbed. At the left were the canes, the sceptres, and the flagellum, the curious instrument frequently seen in the bas-reliefs of the temples, but never before found in so complete a condition. Upon the head were placed a diadem of silver incrusted with stones, a serpent (uraeus), and a head of a vulture in gold. Upon the breast I found a collar of gold ornamented with fifty pendants, incrusted, and finished at each end with golden hawks' heads of natural size. At the waist was a gold-ornamented dagger, and by the arms and feet golden bracelets, ornamented with pearls, cornelian, and Egyptian emeralds. The head of the mummy was, as usual, turned to the north. At the left of the feet was the caisse à canopes, gilded like the coffin and covered with texts. Among the titles of the Princess Noub-Hotep it has never been mentioned that she had been a queen. I, however, found in her tomb all the attributes of royalty.—Le Temps, Paris.
ANTHROPOLOGY AT BUFFALO
W JMC GEE
The forty-fifth meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science occurred at Buffalo August 22 to 29. The scientific work of the meeting was accomplished chiefly in the nine sections into which the Association has been organized ; the work in anthropology was, as usual, performed in Section H. Under the vice-presidency of Alice C: Fletcher, the section was organized on August 24 and later by the election of George H. Perkins as Secretary (to fill the vacancy due to the death of Captain Bourke), and by the election of other officers and committees as follows: Councilor, Franz Boas; Press Secretary, A. F. Hunter; Sectional Committee, W J McGee, D. G. Brinton, and W. M. Beauchamp; member of Nominating Committee, J. McKeen Cattell; Sectional Nominating Committee, H. C. Hovey, Franz Boas, and Harlan I. Smith.
The subject of Miss Fletcher's Vice-Presidential address was The Emblematic Use of the Tree in the Dakotan * Group." The address was a contribution, in the words of the author, " to the early history of social and religious development, inasmuch as, in tracing the emblematic use of the tree in the Siouan linguistic group, we follow a people from a comparatively primitive condition, living in isolated bands, independently of each other, to their organization within the tribal structure, compacted by the force of common religious beliefs.” Beginning with a brief description and summary history of the stock, she proceeded to elucidate and illustrate the Siouan belief. The prevalent concept is that of " mysterious power of permeating life," Wa-ku"-da; at least among the modern Indians this concept is anthropomorphic. Certain phenomena are regarded as especially mysterious or potent, notably thunder; after the manner of Indians, the mystery concept was expressed in social organization, and a group of the people were regarded as the progeny of Thunder Beings. These Thunder people" had charge of, or took an important part in, all ceremonies which pertained to the preservation of tribal autonomy.” Now the Thunder Beings are connected in all the myths with the cedar tree; and the cedar pole is the tangible representative or embodiment of thunder; thus the tree or pole plays a vital part in Siouan ceremonial. Moreover, the social organization and the belief are interwoven so that "in the Sacred Pole ceremonies
* Used as a synonym for Siouan. This usage is not in accord with that of Gallatin, whose nomenclature has been widely adopted; this student, in 1836, applied the name Sioux to the entire linguistic stock, so far as then known, and reserved the name Dakota for the most important confederacy in the stock.
not only unity of gentes was required, but unity of authority among the chiefs was enforced.
The ancient thinkers among the Siouan people
came gradually to realize the helpfulness and power that lay in social unity. Out of this realization these ceremonies were slowly evolved, wherein the pole, bearing the topmost branches of the living tree, stood in the midst of the assembled people as an emblem of the presence and authority of Thunder, the universally accepted manifestation of Wa-ka"-da, and also, in its life and growth, as typical of tribal unity and strength.” The details on which the interpretations and conclusions rest were set forth fully. The address was a notable contribution to knowledge of Indian mythology.
On Tuesday morning a resolution on the death of Captain Bourke, Secretary of the Section, was adopted, and an appreciative memorial, prepared by Washington Matthews, was read by Dr Brinton. Subsequently Dr H. C. Hovey described certain "Symbolic Rocks of Byfield and Newbury, Massachusetts." These rocks are gravestones, milestones, etc, cut and erected in the first half of the eighteenth century, apparently by a single individual or a family of stone-cutters. They bear a variety of pagan symbols, which appear not to have been understood by the Puritan inhabitants, and seem to have been commonly regarded as purely decorative. Photographs of a number of the symbolic rocks were exhibited. The paper awakened much interest, several members having seen the inscriptions.
Professor E. W. Claypole presented a suggestive communication on Human Relics from the Drift of Ohio." One of these was an ax-shape stone reported by an intelligent well-digger (E. E. Masterman) as found in blue clay twenty-two feet below the surface in a well in New London, Ohio, in 1886; the other is a smoothed, blade-like stone, found by the same man in gravel six feet from the surface while excavating another well in the
same place and year. Professor Claypole described the geologic relations and exhibited the specimens. The communication was not discussed. Professor Wright followed with "Fresh Geological Evidence of Glacial Man at Trenton, New Jersey." In extension and discussion, Professor Putnam described the recent operations of his assistant, Volk, at Trenton, exhibiting diagrams and specimens produced by many months of labor. Volk's excavations begin in a dark soil or alluvium and pass into a yellow, sandy stratum, tentatively classed with the Trenton gravels; and chipped rock fragments (wasters or rejects) are found in both black and yellow deposits, and appear to be so far distinct as to indicate separate culture stages for the two deposits. Putnam's presentation of the results of sustained operations raised the general question concerning the age of the Trenton gravels and associated deposits and concerning the actual occurrence of artifacts in Pleistocene beds. Brinton pointed out that the archeologic operations of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences at Trenton had yielded only negative results; McGee added that this was true also of the extended investigations of the Bureau of American Ethnology and the less extensive operations by the United States Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of New Jersey, and suggested that the geologic questions be held in abeyance pending the completion of the detailed surveys now in progress under State auspices.
A brief communication by Horatio Hale on "Indian Wampum Records ” was presented in the absence of the author. It was illustrated by an interesting series of specimens.
On Wednesday morning McGee described “Seri Stone Art.” The Seri Indians make little use of stone in their simple handicraft. Stone-chipping is limited to occasional preparation of arrowpoints, and the art seems not to be generally understood and is probably acquired. The prevailing use of stone is for crushing and grinding animal and vegetal substances used for food, for beating out fiber, for making pottery, and for other simple purposes. The stones commonly used are pebbles or cobbles chosen from the beach, and the well-adapted cobbles are preserved, while the ill-adapted are abandoned after a single use. If the stone selected is improved by wear it becomes the property of the user and may be worn through use into a polished discoid implement, serving as muller or hammer, while if