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it is made less serviceable through wear it is soon abandoned. Through this selective process an exceedingly crude type of implement is produced, which differs from both the paleolithic and neolithic type, as commonly defined, in the absence of design. It might be desirable to distinguish this primitive type as protolithic. The paper was discussed by Brinton and others.
Thruston followed with an exhibition of splendid chipped flints and carved shells from Tennessee and Kentucky.
Brinton described “ The Psychic Source of Myths,” pointing out that myths current in particular tribes are partly of local origin, as shown by connection with local features, partly derived from foreign sources. In general, he deprecated the attempt to establish borrowing, except in those cases in which the evidence is definite and complete, since the method, as commonly pursued, leaves out of account those elements which are due to the essential unity of the human mind, and the necessary laws governing its activity. He emphasized the conclusion from recent research that these psychic laws are so universal and so influential as to explain the striking similarity of myths found in various parts of the world. Boas followed with an admirable exposition of
The Limitations of the Comparative Anthropological Method," and Beauchamp presented an account of “Aboriginal Occupation of New York," illustrated by a map showing the distribution and movements of the Indian tribes, as ascertained through prolonged researches. The communications were freely and favorably discussed.
On Thursday (attell described the methods pursued in “Physical and Mental Measurements of Students of Columbia University," and made a forcible plea for raising the standards of work in observational psychology. Boas followed with a valuable account of “ Anthropometry of the Shoshone Indians,” and Beauchamp read a paper on “ Onondaga Games." McGee described the “Papago Time Concept,” which is essentially quadruplicate, or, as the Indians explain, possesses four “turns," so that the period is not considered perfect until it has been four times completed. Boas and others discussed the subject, pointing out analogies, though of somewhat less definite character, among other tribes. He also presented a communication on “ The Beginning of Zooculture," in which zooculture was defined as comprising three stages in the conquest and cultivation of
animals : (1) the initial stage of mutual tolerance in which the relation is collective, (2) the stage of domestication in which individual ownership arises, and (3) the stage of physical and psychical modification by feeding, breeding, etc. Suggestions concerning terminology for the general process and for the three stages were invited. The paper was discussed by Woodrow, Le Conte, Boas, Cattell, and others.
A paper relating to “Recent Discoveries and Discussions as to Pigmy Races,” by R. G. Haliburton, was presented and discussed, and Harlan I. Smith described “ Certain Shamanistic Ceremonies among the Ojibways” in an instructive manner. A paper entitled “Notes on the Theological Development of one Child," by Fanny D. Bergen, attracted interest and elicited some criticism; it was an apparently faithful record of the mental growth of a boy insulated, so far as practicable, from customary theistic teaching and association. Miss Fletcher followed with "Notes on Certain Beliefs concerning Will Power among the Siouan Tribes,” in which she pointed out that certain terms indicate the existence of abstraction or the power of forming abstract conceptions among the Indians-e. 9., the literal translation of the Omaha term for a railway train is “it of its own accord runs.” This and other examples were cited to exemplify what Humboldt styled “the idea of personality” among the aborigines.
A communication from William Wallace Tooker, on the “Meaning of the Name Manhattan,” was read, from which it appears that the name probably connotes an island with wooded hills.
On Friday a number of papers were presented, including " Finland Vapor Baths," by H. W. Smith; “ The Temple of Tepoztian, Mexico," by M. II. Saville (not present); “The Preservation of Local Archeological Evidence," by Harlan I. Smith; "Results of Recent Cave Exploration in the Eastern United States," by Henry C. Mercer (not present); " Cupped Stones,” by Franz Boas; " Pueblo Indian Clans," by F. W. Hodge (not present); “ Mescal Plant and Rite," by James Mooney (not present); and “Recent Explorations in Honduras by the Peabody Museum," by F. W. Putnam. The last-mentioned communication was a clear exposition of the results of researches concerning the prehistoric works of Honduras, which have been found of remarkable extent and archeologic interest; in some cases three series of ruins representing different periods and culture stages are
superimposed; and the architectural and decorative features and the inscriptions and modeling have been found to throw much light on the development of that partial civilization indigenous to America which has attracted all students of Peru, Central America, Yucatan, and Mexico. The paper was discussed at length. A few papers were, in the absence of the authors, presented by title only.
The meetings of Section H were highly gratifying in the number and excellent quality of the papers presented; it was the expressed opinion of several leading anthropologists present that, so far as the science of man is concerned, the Buffalo meeting was never excelled and seldom equaled in the value of the contributions, the wisdom of the discussions, and the harmony of the sessions; and the success of the meetings was a subject of frequent congratulation to Vice-President Fletcher and Permanent Secretary Putnam. It may be noted that a few titles submitted were, as is usual, rejected in Section H; and it is a matter of regret that some of these were afterward accepted and presented in another section, and, in one or two instances, foisted on the daily press, thereby conveying an erroneous impression concerning the real work of the Association in matters pertaining to anthropology and cognate subjects.
Through the action of Section H, the venerable philologist and ethnologist, Horatio Hale, was made a life member of the Association; and, on recommendation of the Section, a Standing Committee of the Association was appointed to consider and report on “ The Ethnography of the White Race in the United States.” The committee named by the Council consists of D. G. Brinton, chairman; J. McK. Cattell, W. W. Newell, WJ McGee, and Franz Boas. A special committee was also appointed to promote the interests of the Section.
Detroit was selected as the place of meeting in 1897, with the expectation that many of the members will subsequently participate in the meeting of the British Association at Toronto.
The general oflicers elected are Wolcott Gibbs, President; F. W. Putnam, Permanent Secretary ; Asaph Hall, Jr, General Secretary; D. S. Kellicott, Secretary of the Council, and R. S. Woodward, Treasurer. The officers chosen for Section H were W J McGee, Vice-President, and Harlan I. Smith, Secretary.
NOTES AND NEWS
A MONUMENT TO PASTEUR.-It has been decided to erect, in one of the principal squares of Paris, a monument to the memory of Pasteur, and that this shall be done by voluntary subscriptions obtained in all civilized nations. The Paris committee has therefore authorized the organization of a committee for the United States in order to give the people an opportunity to assist in erecting this tribute of appreciation. This committee for the United States is as follows:
Dr D. E. SALMON, Chairman,
Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry. Dr E. A. DE SCHWEINITZ, Secretary,
President of and representing the Chemical Society of Washington,
Chief Chemist Biochemic Laboratory. Dr G. BROWN GOODE, Treasurer,
Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. DR GEORGE M. STERNBERG,
Surgeon General, U. S. Army. DR J. Rufus Tryon,
Surgeon General, U. S. Navy. DR J. WALTER WYMAN,
Surgeon General, U. S. Marine Hospital Service. PROF. S. F. EMMONS,
U. S. Geological Survey, representing the Geological Society. PROF. LESTER F. WARI),
President of and representing the Anthropological Society of Wash
ington. DR WILLIAM B. FRENCH,
Representing the Medical Society of the District of Columbia. Hon. GARDINER G. HUBBARD,
President of and representing the National Geographic Society. MR C. L. MARLATT,
Assistant Entomologist, U. S. Department of Agriculture, repre
senting the Entomological Society. DR Cu. WARDELL STILES,
Zoologist, U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, representing the Bio
logical Society of Washington.
The members of this committee will be glad to receive and transmit any funds that may be raised. They supply subscription blanks, which when filled will be forwarded to Paris for preservation.
A MONTHLY BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ANTHROPOLOGIC
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