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the operation the headman stands by directing the proceedings, and a large bullroarer (jummagong)' is sounded impressively by a man standing in the rear. The ceremony of knocking out the tooth is done either on the afternoon of the day of arrival at the mudthiwirra or the day following, according to circumstances. As soon as this ceremony is concluded the men take off their queer disguises and throw them on the ground where the footholes are made, together with the pieces of bark used for hitting the ground, and everything is covered over with the loose rubbish which had previously been scraped away. The mallet and chisel are either burnt or driven into the ground.

The novices are then taken back to the muddhiwirra and are given human excrement, of which they have to eat a small quantity. At night the fire on the thalmoor is kept burning brightly to afford light to the men, who continue to play various games and dances the greater part of the night, very little sleep being indulged in. These performances consist for the most part of imitating animals with which the people are familiar or scenes from their own daily life, and, like the ceremonials of other savage races, are mixed with obscence gestures. During the day the men hunt to provide food for all the party, but the novices remain in the camp in charge of a few of their guardians.

These proceedings occupy about three or four days, the performances at the camp fire being somewhat varied every night. All then leave the mudthiwirra early in the morning, carrying with them all their belongings, and go to some place where there is a large water hole, the novices walking with their guardians, still silent and with their faces cast downward. Before leaving the fire at the mudthiwarri the novices are given pieces of dry bark lighted at one end. As soon as this piece of bark smoulders they renew it with another. On the way to the water hole some of the yooroonga go on ahead, unknown to the novices, and one lies down in a hollow place, such as a hole where a large tree has been burnt out or in a natural depression, or a shallow hole is dug in some soft or sandy soil. This man is covered over with a light layer of bushes or rubbish, and holds in his hand a small bush, as if it naturally grew there. When the guardians and novices reach this spot a halt is made, and the man begins to groan and move, thus causing the bushes and rubbish with which he is covered to shake and heave up and down. Some of the old men go through various incantations around this figure, and at a signal the man gradually rises out of the ground, throwing aside the bushes, and stands up in front of the boys.

i The jummagong is a very large bullroarer used by the men when away with the boys in the bush; the mooroonga is a smaller instrument, and is used in mustering the tribes, and on all occasions, when it is required, in the vicinity of the women's camp.

All hands arriving at the water hole, the boys are stood upon the banks. The men go into the water hole, pretending to look for turtles, crayfish, eels, or the like, but in reality to wash off the charcoal powder with which their bodies had been painted. They splash or lave water with their hands upon the boys standing on the bank, the latter waving their arms to and fro in the direction of the water hole, imitating the actions of the men. These then come out of the water hole and walk about till they are dry, or light a fire to warm themselves if the day is cold.

A start is now made toward the place where the women have erected the new camp. When they have gone on a short distance some of the yooroonga, who are a little way in the lead, stop and two of them stand out in a clear space, one of whom is sounding the jummagong and the other the mooroonga. The boys are now brought to a stand and are told to look at the men who

a are swinging the bullroarers. The headmen then tell the novices that what they now see and hear is the instrument which they heard at the large ring and at the other places since they have been out in the bush. They are cautioned under pain of death not to reveal anything they have seen or heard to the women or children or any uninitiated person. The bullroarers are then handed to the boys for their inspection, and they are invited to use them. They are now permitted to walk erect and to look around. When the day is far advanced a suitable camping place is chosen, where they remain all night. Next morning the journey is resumed, and on coming near the new camp men and neophytes lay down their weapons and other articles which they have carried and decorate themselves to meet the women. The men and boys are painted with stripes and patches of white, according to the manner of their tribe, and the boys are invested with the belt, kilt, head-band, and other articles of a man's attire. The men are also dressed in their full regalia. As soon as these preparations are completed, one of the men swings a bullroarer and the others raise a loud shout or cooee and are answered by the women at the camp.



The new camp.-Immediately after the departure of the boys with their guardians from the būnăn circle the women and children and some of the men who are left to supervise and assist them pack up all their belongings and shift to a suitable place which has been chosen by the headmen, and there erect a new camp, each tribe occupying the side next its own country. Sometimes this camp is formed only a short distance, in other instances it may be several miles from the original camp. Close by it is a partially inclosed space, called the dhurrawangan, built of saplings and bushes, with an opening in the side, over which the saplings are sometimes bent to form a kind of triumphal arch (figure 7, b).

Each mother is accompanied by the female guardian who has remained with her. Only those women are qualified for the duty of guardian who have had a son initiated at a previous būnăn. These guardians and the mother of the novices are collectively called yanniwa, and have a camp to themselves close by the camp of the other women, only the old women of the tribe being allowed to go near them. All the yanniwa have had to carry firesticks in their hands ever since the boys were taken away, and they have also been required to sing the customary būnăn songs at the camp fire every morning and evening. While they are singing these songs they lift burning sticks from off the fire and wave them in the direction of the novices. They thrust their yamsticks into the ground in a row and dance along facing them while waving the burning brands.

Early in the forenoon of the day on which the novices are to return, one of the yooroonga goes on ahead to the new camp and announces their approach. The yanniwa then go from their camp to the dhurrawangan, each woman carrying in her hand a piece of burning bark, which on entering the inclosure they lay on the floor, their fiery ends together, the other end pointing toward the woman who places it. Before going into the inclosure each mother inserts her yamstick vertically into the ground near the entrance. These yamsticks are all in a row, and on each one is a net bag, belonging to the owner of the stick, filled with small green bushes. Some of the old men who have remained with the women also go with the yanniwa to the dhurrawangan and light a fire near the outside of one end of it (figure 7, 9). All the other women in the camp also repair to the dhurrawangan


and lie around the outside opposite the opening or doorway, where they are covered with bushes by the men. The yanniwa are gaily painted, and wear strings of shells, eagle-hawk's claws, and teeth of animals around their necks and in their hair. Each of the mothers is provided with a piece of bark, called jinnin, about a foot or eighteen inches long and two or three inches wide, tapering smaller toward the end held in the hand. These pieces of bark are painted with lines and dots of pipe-clay to make them ornamental.

Return of the boys.-When the necessary preparations are completed at the dhurrawangan the party from the bush makes its appearance. The men, painted and wearing their full regalia, advance in a group, the novices being in the middle; on getting near the latter are taken on the men's shoulders. The principal headmen walk by themselves just outside of the other men. A bullroarer is sounded somewhere in the rear just out of sight of the women, and the guardians march into the dhurrawangan and let the boys down from their shoulders, each in front of his own mother, being guided by the arrangement of the yamsticks near the door. The yooroonga stand near the entrance. Each mother then approaches her son and taps him lightly on the breast with the jinnin; the guardian then turns the boy round, and the mother taps him on the back in a similar manner. The guardians again take the novices on their shoulders and carry them out of the dhurrawangan, when they let them down on the ground and conduct them away to a camp a short distance off, where they remain for the night. As soon as the boys are out of sight of the dhurrawangan the covering is taken off the other women, who return to the camp; the yanniwa come out of the inclosure, carrying with them the firesticks before described, and return to their own quarters.

While the women and yanniwa are going away some of the old men who have been there from the first throw green bushes, which they have in readiness, on top of the large fire before referred to, making a dense smoke (booraylang), and all the men who were out with the boys bush stand round the leeward side of the burning boughs. The smoke caused by the burning of the green leaves ascends around them. After this fumigation the men disperse, some going into the women's camp and others to the boys' quarters. Until now the boys have been called yangomidyang, but from this time forth they are ranked as woorgal, men.

That night some of the old men are present at the camp of the neophytes, and forbid them to eat the flesh of certain animals until they receive permission from the elders of the tribe. Young men who at previous būnăns had been prohibited from eating certain kinds of food are at this meeting relieved from any further restriction in regard to it. A few animals are, however, tabooed as food until a man has been to several būnăns or has attained a certain age. These forbidden animals to eat are called mookoo to the young men. At the conclusion of these proceedings one or more of the men go into the bush some distance from the women's camp and sound a bullroarer, after which they return to their own quarters and everybody retires for the night.

The day after the ceremonies the entire camp is again removed to a new site, as on other occasions; the several contingents camp around the local tribe in the direction of their country, and each one makes a corroboree for the amusement of the others. These corroborees are held on a common ground, which is in convenient part of the camp. The women belonging to each tribe beat their rugs and sing for their own men during the night on which it is their turn to perform.

When all the merry-making is over, if any of the people present have a personal grievance to bring before the headmen or a complaint to make respecting a violation of the tribal laws, the matter is fully discussed by the elders of the several tribes, and punishment is meted out to the offending parties in the presence of the men and women of the whole assemblage. As it would be a breach of the tribal customs for the neophytes to appear before the women, they are debarred from witnessing these proceedings, but are permitted to witness those at the next būnăn ceremonies which take place.

The next day all the tribes from other places who have attended the ceremonies pack up their things and take their departure for their respective districts. There now remains only one further rite to be carried out before the neophytes are finally liberated, and this is performed by the men of each tribe on their own contingent of novitiates some time after their return to their own country.

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