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Final ceremony.—The boys belonging to each tribe, after having been shown to their mothers at the dhurrawangan, as already described, remain with some of the old men of their own tribe, camping in the bush, perhaps some distance from where the women are, gaining their own living during a period of probation which is fixed by the headmen. During this term, which may extend over several months, the neophytes are not permitted to go into any water or to look into it. If it becomes necessary for them to cross a stream they must get some one to carry them over it.

At the end of this period of probation they are again brought back by their guardians to a place near the women's camp, where a platform of bark about a foot or eighteen inches high has been erected. The yanniwa, painted and dressed in their ornaments, are at the platform, having laid down their firesticks on the ground close by; the other women of the tribe are also present, a little farther back, and some of the old men stand near directing the proceedings.

When everything is ready a signal is given, and the guardians appear with the boys on their shoulders, a bullroarer being sounded out of sight. The men let the novices down from their shoulders and leave them standing on the platform. Each mother now steps forward and taps her son with a piece of bark, jinnin, on the breast and on the back. From that time until now the boys have been compelled to carry a firestick, dhungga, in their hands when they went out hunting or when removing from one place to another, and the yanniwa have continued to do the same, but from this time they need not do this. The yanniwa leave their firesticks lying on the ground where they put them down at the platform, and those used by the novices were thrown away when they were taken on the men's shoulders.

The yanniwa and other women return to the camp, and the neophytes are no longer kept under restraint; they are now free and can go about among the men, although they must not associate with the young women, nor must they allow any woman's shadow to fall upon them until the old men who are the repositories of the tribal laws and traditions allow it.




In the study of the Pueblo tribes of New Mexico and Arizona there is no subject of greater interest and importance than the clanship system of that people. Indeed, their genesis and early history are so closely interwoven with their clan divisions that investigation of the former would be practically impossible without a somewhat comprehensive knowledge of these clans. In the incorporation or adoption of other tribal peoples by any given Pueblo tribe, we are apt to find that (1) the new people retain their old clan name but form a new clan in their adopted village; (2) are given an entirely new clan name as a body, or (3) are incorporated by a clan bearing the same name as that borne by the new people or to whom the latter are supposed to be related. With this in mind it is the intention to place on record the aboriginal and English names of the various clans which the writer was able to obtain during a reconnoissance of the pueblos of New Mexico in the summer and autumn of 1895. The existence of many-it may be said most-of these clans has hitherto been unknown, while the native names of but very few of them have ever been published. Prof. Adolph F. Bandelier, however, has given us the translations of the names of a number of the Rio Grande pueblo clans, Dr Fewkes and the late A. M. Stephen have published the names of the Hopi and Tewa clans of the First Mesa of Tusayan, and to Mrs M. C. Stevenson we are indebted for the names of a number of clans of the pueblo of Sia.

The Pueblo tribes of New Mexico and Arizona embody four linguistic stocks-Tanoan, Keresan, Zuñian, and Shoshonean. The Tanoan stock is, or rather was, composed of five dialectal divisions-Tano, Tewa, Tiwa, Jemez, and Piro. Of these the Tano no longer maintain tribal relations ; indeed, they are extinct as a tribe, but their descendants are scattered throughout the other pueblos, the greater number being at Santo Domingo, with whose inhabitants they have become thoroughly intermixed. The Tewa occupy the villages of San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, Pojoaque, Nambe, Tesuque, and the pueblo of Hano among the Hopi. The Tiwa, called by the Spaniards Tigua, live in the pueblos of Taos, Picuris, Sandia, and Isleta. The Jemez inhabit the single village of that name, in which the few surviving members of the kindred Pecos also dwell. The Piros, now almost completely Mexicanized, are found, intermixed with some Tiwa, at the villages of Senecú and Isleta del Sur, below El Paso, on the Rio Grande in Texas and Chihuahua. The population of the Tanoan stock (excluding the few remaining Piros, but including the pueblo of Hano) is 3,266.

The divisions of the Keres or Keresan stock occupy the pueblos of Acoma, Laguna, Sia, Santa Ana, San Felipe, Santo Domingo, and Cochití, and there is but slight dialectal variation in their language. The population of the Keres is 3,561.

The Zuñian stock comprises the solitary pueblo of Zuñi. They number 1,621.

The Pueblo representatives of the Shoshonean stock are the Hopi of northeastern Arizona, who occupy the towns of Sichumovi, Walpi, Mashongnavi, Shipaulovi, Shumopovi, and Oraibe. The population of these villages is 1,839.

The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona therefore number 10,287. From the accompanying schedule it will be observed that of the Tewa pueblos San Juan has 19 clans (exclusive of three clans recorded by Bandelier, the past or present existence of which was emphatically denied to me by the Indians); Santa Clara, 15; San Ildefonso, 29; Nambe, 12 (including one extinct); Tesuque, 4 existing and 6 extinct, and Hano, 8 existing and 7 extinct. Of the Pojoaque there are only 19 surviving Indians, and of these but 5 are of full blood. The governor, Antonio Montoya, is almost pure Mexican. The condition of their affairs is such that the oldest inhabitant claims to have forgotten that they ever had a clan system.

The aggregate number of known clans in the Tewa villages, excluding the 3 given doubtfully by Bandelier, is 100, 14 of these being extinct. The population of the Tewa (exclusive of Pojoaque) is 1,110. Regarding the total number of existing clans as 86, the average number of natives forming a clan among the Tewa is 12.9. The average number of San Juan Indians to a living clan is 24.77; of Santa Clara, 15; San Ildefonso, 5.1; Nambe, 7.18; Tesuque, 22.75, and Hano, 20.12.

1 No account of the clanship system of these villages is here given, since such would duplicate the excellent work of Dr J. Walter Fewkes and the late A. M. Stephen, already published.

The Cloud clan is the only one which exists at all of these six Tewa villages. The Sun people is found at all but Nambe, where it has become extinct. The Calabash, Eagle, Earth, and Turkois clans are or have been common to five of the Tewa pueblos; the Coral, Corn, Firewood or Timber, Gopher, and Grass to four of them, while several clans are represented at three of the villages.

Of the Piros clans little or nothing is known, and of those of the Tiwa very little information could be gained. Fortunately, however, through Mr Charles F. Lummis, the well-known authorwhose residence for many years at Isleta has gained for him and consequently for us an intimate knowledge of the customs, mythology, and traditions of the inhabitants of that village--we have learned the names of the 16 Isleta clans.

At Sandia and Picuris the existence of clans was persistently denied, but Mr Lummis assures me that there is no possible doubt that, at the former village at least, the clanship system prevails. Bandelier states that the Taos have 13 clans, six of which he mentions, but this investigator admits that his list is "neither complete nor absolutely reliable."

With respect to the Jemez and Pecos we are fortunately in possession of more complete information. The population of Jemez, including the two remaining full-blood Pecos, is 428, divided into 11 clans, in addition to a clan given by Bandelier as named from a flower of the genus dandelion, but the existence of which my Jemez informants denied. All of these clans, with the exception of the untraceable Dandelion, formerly existed at Pecos, and the latter people had also 7 other clans not now represented at Jemez. The average number of members of the Jemez clans is 38.9.

Of the Keres villages Laguna has 18 existing and 2 extinct or probably extinct clans; Acoma, 14 existing, 6 extinct, and 2 (Piñon-eater and Ivy) given by Bandelier of which no trace could be found; Santa Ana, 7; Sia, 16 existing (3 of which are almost extinct) and 21 extinct; San Felipe, 21 existing (3 of which are practically extinct), 9 extinct, and one (Ivy) given by Bandelier as dying out, but of which the writer could find no trace; Cochití, 12 existing (one of them almost extinct), 5 extinct, and 2 (Ivy and Mexican Sage) given by Bandelier but not traceable by the writer unless they occur under some other name. Of the Santo Domingo clans our information is due to Bandelier, who states that the village has the 18 clans common to the other Keres villages. During his brief visit to Santo Domingo the writer found it impossible to learn the names of these clans with accuracy, so that further investigation will be necessary.

The population of the Keres villages is 3,561, and exclusive of Santo Domingo (whose population is 671), 2,890. The total number of their existing clans (exclusive of Santo Domingo, but including the others given doubtfully by Bandelier) is 93, making the average membership of each Keres clan 31.07. On the same basis the average number of individuals to a clan in Laguna is 63.5; Acoma, 40.43; Santa Ana, 36.14; Sia, 6.62; San Felipe, 25.18; Cochití, 6.15.

From the accompanying table it will be seen that, omitting Santo Domingo from our calculation, the Corn clan is the only one represented at all the Keres villages, although the Eagle and Turkey peoples have been common to all of them, but have become extinct at Cochití. The Bear, Sun, Coyote, Antelope, Oak, and Fire clans are or have been represented in five of the six villages; the Rattlesnake, Water, Parrot, Turkois, Road-runner (also called Chapparal Cock and Pheasant), Calabash or Squash, Mountain Lion, and Ivy in four of the towns, and the Earth, Ant, and Dove in three. Several clans are also common to two pueblos of this stock.

Zuñi has 13 clans, as determined by Mr F. H. Cushing, and a tribal population of 1,621. The average number of individuals in a Zuñi clan is therefore 124.69.


ANT.-Nambe, Ku"-tdóa; Pecos, Amú'+; Acoma, -hánoq;

Sia, Sii-háno; San Felipe, Sil-háno. ANTELOPE.-San Ildefonso, To-tdóa; Isleta, T'am-t'ainin; La

guna, Kūr'tsi-hános; Acoma, Kūr'ts-hánoq'"; Sia, Kú'ts-háno;

San Felipe, Kuuts-háno ; Cochití, Ků'ts-hánuch. ARROW.-Sia, İshtowa-háno; San Felipe, İsh'to-háno. AXE.-Given by Bandelier as existing at Taos; native name un


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