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a beautiful specimen (plate viii) of this shell with an incrustation of turquois mosaic set in gum or pitch. This is one of the finest specimens of aboriginal mosaic which I have ever seen. The minute pieces of turquois of which it was made were accurately squared and perfectly fitted, their edges being beveled in such a way that the gum in which they were inlaid was invisible between them. The only stone besides turquois used in its construction was a rectangular fragment of red jasper set in the middle of the mosaic. Retracted legs were represented by lines of smaller turquois and were separated from the remaining mosaic by dark lines of the gum in which they were imbedded. Although no eyes were indicated, the resemblances of this work to a frog fetish is too close to overlook, especially when compared with the shell frog mentioned above.
This beautiful object was taken out of the grave in the presence of Dr Walter Hough, and was seen by me a short time after. The workman who opened the grave was Mr J. Bargeman, of Winslow, Arizona, overseer of Mexicans employed by me at the ruin. It was broken when found, but no “restoration” was made except to glue on the shell the larger fragments of mosaic, fitting them back in their former position. The anterior part was not broken, and the turquois blocks are in the same position as when found. None had fallen out with the exception of a few near the posterior end. The fragment of red jasper in the middle of the back had become detached and was replaced. Although I have several small fragments which belong to the specimen, I have not replaced them for fear of error, and as far as human care can go the specimen is essentially the same as when found.
So far as I know, this is the only known specimen of a Pectunculus with turquois incrustations resembling a frog which has been found on the drainage of the Little Colorado river. Specimens from the Gila-Salado ruins have been reported, and of these I know of but one of ancient manufacture, the specimen which was formerly in the possession of Mr Lincoln Fowler, of Phænix, Arizona. This object I have never examined, and as no published figures of it have, to my knowledge, appeared, comparisons with it are impossible.
The art of incrusting stone mosaic by inlaying was common in ancient Tusayan pueblos, and wood, lignite, bone, and shell were
used as bases. Perhaps the best known survival of this craft in modern pueblos are the square ear pendants of wood, incrusted with turquois, worn by women. These are seldom made at the present day, and have generally dropped out of use on the East mesa, where, however, they are preserved as heirlooms or worn in personifications of Kateinamanas. Some of the figurines on altars wear these mosaic ear ornaments, and they have not wholly passed out of use among women at the Middle mesa and Oraibi.
The center of the pendant is sometimes formed by a rectangular fragment of haliotis shell, but, as a rule, the mosaic of turquois is clumsily made, the individual blocks not neatly fitted, and far from artistic, the workmanship in all respects inferior to that of the frog found at Chaves Pass.
The best example of prehistoric incrustation on wood which was found was taken from a grave at the Chevlon ruin. The imbedded parts of the mosaic consisted of turquois and haliotis shell fragments, accurately fitted, making an oblong gorget (plate VIII). I have several objects made by incrusting wood with turquois alone, but as shell forms no part in their construction I will not consider them in this article. The same limitation holds in regard to inlaying of turquois in lignite, of which I have a beautiful ear pendant of rare workmanship. Two fragments of shell of an unknown genus, possibly allied to Pectunculus, were found at the Chevlon ruin. Their form (plate ix, figure 3) was that of a highly conventionalized animal, and they were probably used as ornaments, but their true character is unknown to me.
In the following table is given a brief summary of the specimens of Pectunculus referred to in the preceding pages : Number of specimens.....
10; many additional fragments. Wristlets....
44; many additional fragments. Finger rings.
30; many additional fragments. Fragment incrusted on wood....
2 Carved in imitation of frog.
1 Shells not worked. Shells with medial perforation..... 20
Localities.-Homolobi, Chevlon, and Chaves Pass.
Conus fergusoni, Sow.; Conus princeps, L.; Conus regularis, Sow.Three species of Conus were found in prehistoric graves. These were favorite shells for the manufacture of rattles and are still used for that purpose in the modern ritual. The spire was ground away on a plane at right angles to the lip, making a conical object perforated at the apex. The larger specimens (plate ix, figure 3) were probably tied to a short crook and used as rattles with which to beat time to the sacred songs. Smaller specimens, found in great numbers on some of the skeletons, were apparently tied to garments of the deceased in much the same fashion that the tin cones are appended to the kilts of Snake priests in the Snake dance. Number of specimens..
Turritella tigrina, Keiner.—A single specimen of this shell was found at the Chevlon ruin. With the exception of a perforation near the lip, it was not “worked.” At the present day Turritella is highly esteemed, and specimens of this species are attached by a cotton string to several of the tiponis or palladia of religious societies.
Cardium elatum, Sow.-I found this shell in prehistoric Tusayan ruins for the first time in the summer of 1896. On one specimen lines in black pigment were painted about the umbo. Another specimen, found with the "incrusted Pectunculus" in the form of a frog, contained a number of very small obsidian arrow-points. Two specimens only were found, one each at Chevlon and Chaves Pass. Melongena patula, Rod. et Sow.– A single specimen of this
species, found at Chevlon, had the spire ground off, leaving a small orifice. This shell was probably used in ceremonials.
1 In Hopi mythology several gods wear garments with jingling shells from the ocean. Thus the Sun (Tawa) has shells on his clothes. The monster, Tcavaiya, an offspring of the Sun, carried on his back a basket hung with jingling shells, and down his legs he wore the same mosilili. In certain ceremonials men still dress with a profusion of jingling shells attached to their garments. Few modern Hopi chiefs are too poor not to have at least a few seashells in their religious paraphernalin, and one can carry them no more acceptable gift than shells from the ocean. Not all shells used by the priests in the performance of their pagan rites are old. The Katrina chief, Intiwa, for the last four performances of the Niman-katcina has used in important secret rites a cyprea shell on which is graven the Lord's prayer.
Strombus galeatus, Wood.- A specimen of this shell had been treated in the same way as Melongena, and was probably used for the same purpose. In the presentation of the Palülükonti' and Soyaluña, a similar shell, possibly of this species, is used to imitate the roar of the Great Plumed Serpent.
Haliotis fulgens, Phil.- This pearly shell, still highly prized by the Hopi Indians for ceremonial purposes, was equally esteemed by the prehistoric people. Three large and, when found, complete specimens were dug from the Chaves Pass ruin. Small rectangular and oval fragments, pierced for suspension, were likewise found. Fragments of the same were combined with turquois in mosaic incrustations on wood. Number of specimens, 3 ; numerous additional fragments; worked fragments, 5. Localities, Chevlon, and Chaves Pass.
Oliva annulata, Lam.-Several specimens of this species were found in the ruins. Some of these shells were in natural condition and others highly polished, but by far the greater number showed marks of grinding. A single specimen was truncated at one end with a perforation at the opposite extremity, evidently formerly used as species of Conus for rattles. Two specimens were truncated at both ends and one of these had incised lines over its surface.
There were numerous specimens of the above species from Homolobi, Chevlon, and Chaves Pass. To these places may be added Awatobi, Sikyatki, and old Cuñopavi.
Oliva hiatula, Gmelin; Oliva biplicata, Sow.— These shells were the most abundant of all marine mollusca in Tusayan ruins. They were made into beads by truncating the ends, a usage which is still current in Tusayan. Ordinarily the shell was simply perforated at each end by this process, but in many specimens this truncation had gone so far that all semblance of the form of the shell was lost and a perforated disk was the result.
These worked shells were used as necklaces, for the adornment of garments and other purposes. They were found by hundreds in all ruins which I studied.
In addition to the specimens of seashells which preserved enough of their natural form to render identification possible I collected many fragments of unknown relationship. It is
1 See my article on the Palūlūkoñti, Journal of American Folk-Lore.