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In it the two chapters on religion are noteworthy for the original myths and chants they contain. These were collected by Archdeacon Perham, and are printed in the native dialects, with translations. Several of them refer to the mysterious and all-pervading power which the Sea Dyaks speak of as Petara, and of whom they sing that he was :

Patu, nadai apai,
Endang nadai indai.

An orphan, without father,
Even without mother.

To define this belief, whether monotheistic or polytheistic, distinctly puzzles the Archdeacon, for they say of superior men, " They are petara," and, again, that every man has his own petara.

This is precisely as the Polynesians employ the term mania; the Quichuas, huaca; the Sioux, wakan, etc, signifying "the Divine,” which may or may not be individualized, but exists as the essence of nature. The legends given are curious and suggestive, but in some the influence of India is unmistakable. In fact, it may be said of the Dyak mythology that it is deeply colored with foreign additions, and further studies are necessary to determine what portions of it are truly indigenous and ethnic.

The legends quoted relate to the creation and the deluge, the origin of the tribes, animal stories, about water and mountain spirits, and one very entertaining piece, “ The story of the Ancient Traveler whose coming is unknown,” which narrates the war raid of their legendary hero Klieng to the skies.

The second volume deals with the habitations and arts of weaving, dyeing, and dressing; painting and tatooing ; wars, weapons, and the famous “head-hunting;” their poisons; slaves, sacrifices, and cannibalism; their government and useful arts; music, language, and archeology. To this is subjoined in an appendix a large number of vocabularies and ethnographical notes.

There is no doubt the natives were at one time cannibals, but the habit has fallen so much into disuse that scarcely an European can be mentioned who professes to have witnessed it.

It has been often stated that the Dyaks have an ancient and peculiar alphabet in which they write their records. This has not been supported by Mr Roth's scrutiny of the evidence. The characters found on their weapons and on rocks in their territory are of Indian provenance.

With regard to the archeology of the island, no signs of an extremely ancient or paleolithic population have been discovered. The caves have been explored and yielded human bones and implements, but only of cultural types and associated with recent fauna.

The dialects vary considerably, but are plainly Malayan. Some of them are intermediate between pure Malay and the Polynesian languages.

The tattooing is often of singular delicacy and symmetry. The designs figured, page 88, are elaborate and graceful. A similar sense of harmony is visible in the ornaments and the decorations of costumes.

This admirable treatise cannot fail to be appreciated highly by all students of the ethnology of the native races of the world.

D. G. BRINTON.

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The History of Mankind. By Professor Friedrich Ratzel. Translated from the

second German edition by A. J. Butler, M. A., with introduction by E. B. Tylor, D. C. L., F. R. S. Vol. I. London, Macmillan & Co., Limited (New York, The Macmillan Co.), 1896. 80, xxiv, 486 pp., plates and figures. Price, $4. This is one of the most important contributions to English anthropologic literature that has been made in recent years; not that the work is an exposition of new discoveries relating to the science of man-for like Wood, Brown, Prichard, Latham, Waitz, and other anthropologists the author deals largely with facts gleaned and published by others—but the contrast between the old and the new is so great that one is surprised by the completeness and beauty of this first volume of Dr Ratzel's English edition.

There is not sufficient space to give an extended account of this new work, which is translated by Mr A. J. Butler from the second German edition of 1894–95. This first volume contains an introduction by Professor E. B. Tylor, the great English anthropologist, the body of the work being devoted to (Book I) the Principles of Ethnography and (Book II) the American Pacific Group of Races. Book I (129 pp.) comprises : (1) The task of ethnography; (2) Situation, aspect, and numbers of the human race; (3) The position of natural races among mankind; (4) Nature, rise, and spread of civilization; (5) Language; (6) Religion; (7) Science and art; (8) Invention and discovery ; (9) Agriculture and cattle-breeding; (10) Clothing and ornament; (11) Habitations; (12) Family and social customs; (13) The state; in fine the entire scope of the subject is treated as fully as a popular work requires. Book II describes (a) The races of Oceania, (6) The Australians, (c) Malays and Malagasies.

The volume is fully and beautifully illustrated. In addition to nine colored plates, mostly illustrating weapons, utensils, sacred paraphernalia, etc, there are more than 300 finely executed wood engravings and maps. In the preparation of his text and illustrations the author has drawn extensively on the ethnological collections in the museums of Berlin, Munich, Vienna, Dresden, and Stockholm, as well as in the British museum and in private cabinets.

Professor Ratzel's work, which will comprise three volumes, shows probably better than any similar production the progress made in anthropological research throughout the world during the last few decades. It is destined to contribute largely toward stimulating anthropological work, and we predict for it the abundant success it deserves.

F. W. HODGE.

JAPANESE ARMY RATIONS.— The most curious alimentation is that of the Japanese soldier, a newcomer in the world's armies. It reaches 1,091 grams and 29 centimes of rice daily, to which can be added fish, fresh or dry, pâtes of fermented haricots, European vegetables, gherkins, aquatic herbs, stalks of the water lily, preserved ginger, shrimps, fermented cucumbers, lobsters, roasted corn, and other things.

A MONTHLY BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ANTHROPOLOGIC

LITERATURE

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