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dians themselves assert; and indeed there is little ground for doubting this, although much mystery has been made to surround these ruined edifices, whose origin has been variously accredited to Aztecs and other races. Many human skeletons which I have exhumed from the burial cists of cliff-dwellings bear an almost exact resemblance to the form and stature of the Mokis, and there is a close correspondence between the implements and materials found buried in the caves and casas grandes of the extinct people and those now in use or still preserved as relics in the houses of the Mokis. All of these proofs declare that the Mokis were once a more numerous people than now, and that they have long been in possession of the country they today occupy.

The Mokis are a thrifty race, devoted to agricultural pursuits and to raising sheep, goats, cattle, ponies, donkeys, hogs, and some turkeys and chickens. These and other occupations keep them employed at home during most of the year; but in autumn or winter they make frequent visits to the neighboring Indian tribes—the Havasupais, Navahos, and Apaches, as well as the Zuñis and other Pueblo tribes. Before its abandonment, they visited Fort Verde at least once a year, the trip occupying six days, as they travel, riding ponies and packing burros. Sometimes they extend the journey forty miles for the purpose of trading at Prescott. They formerly made occasional pilgrimages across the parched desert country to the Pacific ocean, and returned laden with seashells and other products.

The revision of the zoological vocabulary of the Moki language, of which the present paper forms the ornithological portion, was made with the aid of my venerable friend Ongwischey (Raven), who fully comprehended my motives and exerted himself to make the list of names as complete and accurate as possible. Ongwischey is an exceedingly intelligent Indian, with many commendable qualities; he is simple and truthful, speaks fairly good English, and hence proved invaluable. He also possesses an excellent knowledge of the fauna, having traveled extensively in Arizona and New Mexico, but he has never been a hunter, although his brother Näh'hůh (Duck), chief or governor of one of their villages, is a Nimrod of the Moki tribe, having killed many mountain sheep, deer, antelope, and other large game; but the acme of the Moki hunter's aspirations was achieved when he killed an elk in the White mountains of Arizona, an exploit which his people do not intend shall be forgotten. Some hunters among the young men were found to have a better acquaintance with the pinicoline species, with which they met when hunting in the high mountains, and Ongwischey acted as interpreter for them.

My contact with the Moki Indians has been for such brief periods and so intermittent that I have by no means mastered their language or even its grammatical construction, although it appears to resemble the English in the form of its descriptive names, with which the present paper has exclusively to do.

It will be observed that some of the Moki names are of Spanish origin. The fact is the Moki tongue has become impure from contact with Mexicans and half-bloods from some of the New Mexican pueblos, where Indians and Mexicans live together.

Although more attentive to nature than most whites, it must be remembered that the Mokis are not ornithologists, and cannot be expected to name even all birds that have fallen under their observation, much less such as have never attracted their critical attention, or to discriminate between closely related species or those which resemble one another in color or form. In the accompanying list I have included all species of Arizona birds for which I could obtain any name, although some of them were manifestly coined at the moment. The bird was invariably held in hand, or, whenever possible, shown to them alive, at the time its Moki appellation was transcribed. Perhaps when some small sparrow was presented for christening they would call it simply chi'-e (little bird), and, when closely pressed for a more distinctive title, they would call it pin'to-che-ē (spotted little bird). It was thought worth while to record names thus obtained, if for no other purpose than to show the limitations of their ornithological knowledge. I have written the Moki names phonetically, as pronounced by the Indians, and have not hesitated to vary the spelling to suit variations in pronunciation by different individuals, thinking thereby to make this vocabulary more useful and intelligible to those who may subsequently acquire a mastery of the language and desire to construct a complete Moki vocabulary.

The Mokis have a superstitious regard for most living things, and many animals are held by them as sacred and made the object of idolatrous worship. Ophiolatry is practiced by them; and so great is their reverence for serpents that they will not permit one to be molested. They can name any indigenous serpent without the slightest hesitancy, thus showing their great familiarity with them. The revolting religious rites practiced by them at the time of their annual Snake-dance are fully described by Captain John G. Bourke, U.S. A.,' and by Dr J. Walter Fewkes. Among the birds held sacred, or which represent their clans or secret religious orders, are the eagle, parrot, macaw, heron or sandhill crane, road-runner or chapparal cock, turkey, and dove. Observers of Moki ceremonies have seen large wooden tablets in their kivas or ceremonial chambers painted with a green ground, ornamented with the rain prayer and some one of the countless Moki gods, and have remarked that the little bird in the clouds suggests the Thunder-bird of the Plains Indians. Bourke states that "feathers appear constantly in religious ceremonies ”-chiefly those of the eagle and turkey. The wands, made with eagle feathers, used for fanning living serpents at their Snake-dance, cannot be bought, as they refuse to part with them for any pecuniary consideration, fearing to offend their ornithological deity. “In the early days of spring, when the fields are to be tilled, the devout Mokis prepare the sacrificial plumes of eagle down attached to little sticks, which are buried in the corners of their lands."3 Bancroft, speaking of the natives of Mexico, tells us (vol. II, p. 231) that eagles were furnished as tribute to Montezuma, one town alone sending in forty each year. He also informs us that a species of paroquet was a sacred bird among the Zapotecs of Mexico, and as such worshiped (vol. II, p. 211). Bourke observes: “ The feathers of the parrot, which have to be brought up from the interior of the neighboring Republic of Mexico, are treasured by all the Pueblos as far north as Taos and Picuris, and west to Acoma, Zuñi, and Oraibi. They will always be found carefully preserved in peculiar wooden boxes, generally cylindrical in shape, made expressly for the purpose; with them is invariably associated the soft white down of the eagle.” He also notes having seen caged parrots in the pueblo of Santo Domingo, New Mexico, which were in a fearful state of demoralization, nearly every one of their fine blue, red, and yellow feathers having been plucked to make wands for the dancers or to decorate the sacred standards used in their Dance of the Tablet.

i The Snake-dance of the Moquis of Arizona, etc, New York, 1884, 2 Snake Ceremonials at Waipi : Jour. Am. Eth. and Arch., vol. iv, Boston, 1894 3 Bourke : Snake-dance of the Moquis, p. 259.

The Mokis show an excellent acquaintance with raptorial birds. They have an especial veneration for the two species of eagle, which are kept by them in cages in the pueblos of Oraibi, Mashongnavi, Shumopavi, and Shipaulovi,' and fed largely on field-mice and rabbits. Captain Bourke alludes to eagle feathers as common articles of commerce among the Mokis, having a determinate value, and ascribes the high price placed upon them by all the sedentary Indians of Arizona and New Mexico to some considerations graver than those of commerce.


General Terms

To run,

Bird, qua-yuh.

Stone, õh-hua' or öh-wúh'. A big bird, qua'hůh.

Tree, sche-húrbp'be. A little bird, che'ē.

Cottonwood-tree, päh-sche-húrbp'bē. A bird's nest, tüh'kē. When shown The ground or earth, whär' zhů.

a nest of the black phæbe (Suyornis Grass, päh-tish'n'wä. nigricans), they called it a wow- Spotted, pin'to (Spanish). wow'ůh-k’ia-täh'kē, meaning a swal- Black, coim'bwe.

low's nest, which it resembles. White, coy-õte' . A bird's egg, qua'ni-hūh.

Green, -king' půh. To sing, tûr-tūck'úh.

Blue, shais-quä-bůh. To fly, phâr-yặct'tē.

Yellow, tõsh' căb-by. härzh-roorru-.

Red, päh'lä. Man, täh'kă.

Brown, tosh-e'kē. Woman, wûrk'tē.

Head, coit-tûr-ŭt-. Man bird (i. e., male), täh’kı-vēk-Shoulder, schil'kă-țl-. or täh'ků-che'ē.

Wing, mih schl-it-ti. Woman bird (i, e., female), wûrk'tē- Tail, schü-rõõ'ŭt-. wek-or wûrk'te-che-ē.

Leg, -käh'ŭt-. Old, wûrk'tök-üh.

Foot, quirk't-. Young, năng cli--mi.

Eye, po'sche-ěl-. Little, chaoloi-il.

Crest, -põtch'kůh-åt-. Big, yöh'chi-yök-.

Little bill or beak, -chõp'ho-yŭh. Water, päh'hih or kûr'yē.

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Big bill or beak, will-kom'n' cho-wŭh. River, chûr-hûrbp'bē-coil-lůh.

Gun, äh-mûrk'ŭh-. Mountain, ne-wäi'te-kow-ē.

1 Captain Bourke states (p. 27) that " eagles are still raised in cages in Picuris, San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, Zuñi, Acoma, and the villages of the Moquis farthest to the west."

Specific Terms

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Podilymbus podiceps (Linn.), pied-billed grebe, schirp' kēm-äh.
Urinator imber (Gunn.), loon, çhä-cum'ón. (A “swift diver.”)
Urinator pacificus (Lawr.), Pacific loon, yhä-cum'on.
Larus delawarensis Ord., ring-billed gull, päh'qua-ŭh. (A "fisherman.”)
Sterna forsteri Nutt., Forster's tern, päh-wöke' ko.
Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis (Gmel.), black tern, coim'bwe-päh-

Merganser americanus (Cass.), American merganser, tổng'äh-coit-ŭh.
Merganser serrator (Linn.), red-breasted merganser, -poich'ko-wow-ê-.
Lophodytes cucullatus (Linn.), hooded merganser, co-chä'hé-qua-wow-

wēk-. Anas boschas Linn., mallard, tòng-äh' cow-wow-ŭh-. Anas strepera Linn., gadwall, päh' week-ěh' or päh'we-k’ia. Anas americana Gmel., baldpate, pin'to-coit-ŭh-wow-wēk-. Anas carolinensis Gmel., green-winged teal, cho-cone' wow-wēk-. Anas discors Linn., blue-winged teal, mäsh-she'shă-cow-wow' wēk-. Anas cyanoptera Vieill., cinnamon teal, püh' -k’ia. Spatula clypeata (Linn.), shoveller, päl wi-k'ia. Dafila acuta (Linn.), pintail, pin'to-wow-wēk-. Aythya americana (Eyt.), redhead, co-chow'wone-ŭh-wow-wēk-. Aythya vallisneria (Wils.), canvas-back, püh-lockt'tă-wow-wēk-. Aythya collaris i Donov.), ring-necked duck, pāy'tă-cow-wow-wēk-. (Re

fers to the band across its bill.) Charitonetta albeola (Linn.), buffle-head, wŭsch-e'wow-wēk-. Erismatura rubida (Wils.), ruddy duck, päh-lä'huin-to-wow-wêk-. (Indi

cates a duck spotted with red.) Branta canadensis occidentalis (Baird), white-cheeked goose, pûhr

you' wish-ă. Branta canadensis minima Ridgw., cackling goose, will-ko'wow-wēk-. Olor buccinator (Rich.), trumpeter swan, päh'to-ko. NOTE TO Anatidæ. Päh-wow-wow'ict-. A general name used by the

Mokis to denote any member of this family. Mokis do not eat ducks, but the name (näh'hủh) of the chief or governor (called moung' we) of

a village (-pe' ) signifies a species of duck. Plegadis guarauna (Linn.), white-faced glossy ibis, päh-lä'tong-uh-pow

wow'-wēk-. Tantalus loculator Linn., wood ibis, päh' -or coi-chi'lir-li-chä. Botaurus lentiginosus (Montag.), American bittern, will-kö'huatch-röð. Ardetta exilis (Gmel.), least bittern, -chi_he-qua. Ardea herodias Linn., great blue heron, lûr'lŭ-chä-åt-lõk'ko. Ardea egretta Gmel., American egret, co-chow' wow-wēk-. Ardea candidissima Gmel., snowy heron, co-chow' he-me-wow-wēk-. Ardea rufescens Gmel., reddish egret, päh-lü'ål-tök'ko. Ardea virescens anthonyi Mearns, green heron, mŭsh-she' wow-e-. Nycticorax nycticorax nævius (Bodd.), black-crowned night heron, co


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