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Chelidon erythrogastra (Bodd. ), barn swallow, cho-cows' wow-wow'ůh-k’ia. Tachycineta thalassina (Swains.), violet-green swallow, wow-wow'úh-k’ia. Clivicola riparia (Linn.), bank swallow, chûr-hûrip' wow-wow'úh-k’ia. Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Aud.), rough-winged swallow, chûr-húrbp'

wow-wow'uh-k’ia. This and the above are "river swallows." Phainopepla nitens (Swains.), phainopepla, -kowtz’kähn-. Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides (Swains.), white-rumped shrike, mo'

chin-e. Vireo gilvus (Vieill.), warbling vireo, che-húrp'che-ē. The same name was

applied to the following species: V. solitarius, V. solitarius plumbeus,

V. bellii pusillus, and V. vicinior. Helminthophila luciæ (Cooper), Lucy's warbler, päh-lä'go-påh. Helıninthophila virginia (Baird), Virginia's warbler, päh-lä'go-půh. Helminthophila ruficapilla gutturalis Ridgw., Calaveras warbler, shume'

the-lich-ki-c. Helminthophila celata lutescens (Ridgw.), lutescent warbler. The same

name as above. Dendroica æstiva (Gmel.), yellow warbler, päh' văn-shear-. Dendroica auduboni (Towns.), Audubon's warbler, tshë-kåk' qua-. Dendroica graciæ Baird, Grace's warbler, che-kók' -. Dendroica nigrescens (Towns.), black-throated gray warbler, fill-wháy'

hen-húrk-. Geothlypis macgillivrayi (Aud.), Macgillivray's warbler, mäsh' qua-. Geothlypis trichas occidentalis Brewst., western yellow-throat, my-yeā'ző. Icteria virens longicauda (Lawr.), long-tailed chat, tsē-' che-e. Sylvania pusilla pileolata (Pall.), pileolated warbler, my-yā'ző. Anthus pensilvanicus (Lath.), American pipit, chê-röö' or che-rððh'. Cinclus mexicanus Swains., American dipper. This bird is unknown

to the Mokis. There are no suitable places for it about their villages, as their water supply is derived from small springs or cisterns

made for storing rain water, there being no mountain streams. Oroscoptes montanus (Towns.), sage thrasher, -chete' che-ē. Mimus polyglottos (Linn.), mockingbird, coi-chä'che-ē. The first part of

this name has reference to its pale or whitish colors. Harporhynchus crissalis (Henry), crissal thrasher, will-pom'chö-wúh. The

Mokis are unacquainted with the other Arizona thrashers. Heleodytes brunneicapillus (Lafr.), cactus wren, will-coil'ă-iche-wůh.

Ongwischey said that he visited San Carlos Indian agency, on the
Gila river, seven years ago and there saw these large wrens among

the tall cactuses.
Salpinctes obsoletus (Say), rock wren, ptilt'chê-vrúh.
Catherpes mexicanus conspersus Ridgw., cañon wren, ptil' push-qua.
Thryothorus bewickii leucogaster Baird, Baird's wren, tilt'che-wèh.
Troglodytes aëdon aztecus Baird, western house wren, till' push-qua

ter'tūck-. Singing wren. Troglodytes hiemalis (pacificus Baird ?), winter wren, ptil push-qua.

Cistothorus palustris (Wils.),' long-billed marsh wren, lä'chy-o.
Sitta carolinensis aculeata (Cass.), slender-billed nuthatch, hõpe'yung-äh.

Woodpecker!
Sitta pygmæa Vig., pygmy nuthatch, hõpe-yung' hoi-.
Parus inornatus griseus Ridgw., gray titmouse, ' kõõm-äh.
Parus wollweberi (Bonap.), bridled titmouse, ko-pôtsh'cûr--.
Parus gambeli Ridgw., mountain chickadee, ko-pisth' chûr--.
Psaltriparus plumbeus Baird, lead-colored bush-tit, were' were-you-mŭh.
Auriparus flaviceps (Sund.), verdin. Same name as the last.
Regulus calendula (Linn.), ruby-crowned kinglet, ptu-we-wutz'ë-höð-ia.
Polioptila cærulea obscura Ridgw., western gnatcatcher, shë-pāy'běh.
Pólioptila plumbea Baird, plumbeous gnatcatcher, sŭsh-she'che-ē.
Myadestes townsendii (Aud.), Townsend's solitaire, què-quēl' mäch-cho.
Turdus ustulatus Nutt., russet-backed thrush, pin'to che-é. Spotted little

bird. Turdus aonalaschkæ Gmel., dwarf hermit thrush, pin'to che-é. Var.

auduboni of course received the same name. Merula migratoria propinqua Ridgw., western robin, ptu-ue-würtz'e. Sialia mexicana bairdi Ridgw., chestnut-backed bluebird, chi-qua' che-é. Sialia arctica Swains., mountain bluebird, cho-röö (= accent).

In the accompanying illustration the central figure represents Ong-wisch'-ey (raven); the others two young Moki hunters, Täh-wy'-omb (stick) and Show'-yůh (signifying bat, but also meaning sundown or twilight).

British ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY.–At the last meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, “ a report was read of the committee appointed to direct an Ethnological Sur of Great Britain and Ireland, in which great progress has been made. Mr Read, keeper of the Ethnological Department of the British Museum, proposed the establishment of an Imperial Bureau of Ethnology, referring to the excellent work done by the American Bureau. This proposal, as well as one by Professor Flinders Petrie for an ethnological museum, was received with approval," but both may for the present be considered rather as counsels of perfection.-Scottish Geographical Magazine, November.

1 The long-billed marsh wren of Arizona has been called the subspecies palludicola of Baird ; but as the type of C. p. palludicola came from the Pacific coast region, and represents a darker geographical form than that inhabiting Arizona-as I am informed by Mr Oberholser, who is engaged in making a critical study of the marsh wrens-I have given only its specific name.

STONE IMAGES FROM MOUNDS AND ANCIENT GRAVES

CYRUS THOMAS

In October, 1895, photographs of a small stone image found in a box-shape stone grave at Castilian Springs, Sumner county, Tennessee, were received by the Bureau of American Ethnology from Mr S. S. Bush, of Louisville, Kentucky. Subsequently the

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image was forwarded to the Bureau by Mr Bush for the purpose of examination, and at the same time a cast of it was made. This image, which represents a male, and is only three and a half inches high and of rather slender proportions, is illustrated in figures 1, 2, and 3. Figure 1 shows the front view ; figure 2 gives a view of the back, exhibiting the fillet extending from the back of the head down to about the middle of the back, in the form of a broad strip, possibly intended to indicate the hair, and figure 3 is a side view showing the frontal compression or sloping head. Attention is called to the hair or head-covering shown in the front view (figure 1), and also to the general position and the expression of the face.

A comparison of this image with others found in the same locality and in other localities in middle Tennessee, northern Georgia, and elsewhere reveal such a persistence in certain characteristic features as to suggest that there was in use among the ancient people of the Gulf States and the stone-grave belt a somewhat conventionalized form indicative of local origin. Some facts bearing on this question are presented here with the hope that the subject may be further elaborated by other workers in the archeological field.

Haywood, in his “Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee" (pp. 123, 124, mentions a stone image found on top of a mound at Bledsoe's Lick (or Castilian Springs), which he describes as follows:

On one cheek was a mark resembling a wrinkle passing perpendicularly up and down the cheek. On the other cheek were two similar marks. The breast was that of a female, and prominent. The face was turned obliquely up towards the heavens. The palms of the hands were turned upwards before the face, and at some distance from it, in the same direction that the face was. The knees were drawn near together, and the feet, with the toes towards the ground, were separated wide enough to admit of the body being seated between them. The attitude seemed to be that of adoration. The head and upper part of the forehead were represented as covered with a cap, or mitre, or bonnet: from the lower part of which came horizontally a brim, from the extremities of which the cap extended upwards conically. The color of the image was that of a dark infusion of coffee. If the front of the image were placed to the east, the countenance-obliquely elevated-and the uplifted hands in the same direction would be towards the meridian sun.

A stone head with the “ mark passing perpendicularly up and down the cheek” has been found near Clarksville, Tennessee, and the sloping face, or face turned obliquely upward, is a marked characteristic, as we shall see, of half a dozen or more images found chiefly in Tennessee. Special attention is therefore called to this feature.

There was in the possession of Colonel Lewis Tumlin in 1859 a stone idol which had been plowed up near the large mound of the Etowah group, Bartow county, Georgia, on the plantation of that gentleman. This, according to Colonel C. C. Jones, "consisted of a male figure in a sitting posture. The knees were drawn up almost upon a level with the chin, the hands resting upon and clasping either knee. The chin and forehead were retreating. The hair was gathered into a knot behind. The face was upturned and the eyes were angular.” Unfortunately this specimen was lost during the war. Another, however, was

1 Thruston : Antiquities of Tennessee, fig. 23.

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plowed up in the same place, of which a side view is presented in figure 4, taken from the cast in the Smithsonian collection, while a front view is given by Colonel Jones in his plate XXVI. Colonel Jones, who exhibited the original to Drs Rau and Berendt, at which time it is presumed the cast was made, describes the original as follows: "It is a female figure in a sitting posture. The legs, however, are entirely rudimentary and unformed. Its height is 154 inches, and its weight thirty-three and a half pounds. Cut out of a soft talcose rock, originally of a

a

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