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k'iuen, 3, k'on, "exhort." The phonetic without R. strength is kwan "to pour," R. water, a jar, R. crockery, feu. To call, R. words. From R. chui "birds' tails," R. mouth, in reference to the calling of birds. Afterwards R. grass was added, when the word was used for the sign of a plant, ciconia.

1023. kü, 7, guk, "fearing," as in the sentence liang mu kü kü jan "the two eyes express extreme fear." From 192a and 472. See 957, 1003, etc. See 490. Fear, R. heart. Street, R. 144. The eye, mu, obtains the sound kü because in birds it is that organ which most readily expresses fear.

1024. liuen, lwan, 5, lan, “confused." Also man, pien. In Kw chau "claws" above, a triple R. 52 yeu in the middle, and yeu "hand" below. Law, connect, to rule. Also wan, man, and pien. The modern form was originated in Sc. The meaning "connect" is that of lien 746, 1008. "Confused" lwan "disorder." Silk thread is the sign of connexion. R. words alludes to the sense "words without end."

1025. 非 mi, 5, “not," "without." From 719 ma phonetic and fei 451 ideographic. The last is modern. In Kw R. c'he, walk, and R. hemp.


li, 7, lik, "bright." The upper eight strokes are used in Kw alone, with the same sound and sense. The lower part is luk "deer," here phonetic. It proves the loss of final k.

1027. nan, 5, 7, tan, t'an, "difficult." Name of a bird. From 756 han and chui "bird.”

1028. tsan, 1, "to praise." Assist. Go forward with a person into the presence of the Emperor, in order to introduce him. From 260 sien "before" doubled, and R. shell money, pei, which refers to the precious ornaments carried in the hand on approaching the Emperor.

1029. tien, tin, "turn over," "head," "top." From chen "true" 674 phonetic, and R. head, hie.

1030. pien, 1, pin, "side," "border."

932 pin. Pan in Kp, R. man.

Same radically as

1031. lo, 5, lat, "net." High net for catching birds. From wang "net” and wei, in allusion to the cords called wei used in this net. Other meanings: hedge, choose, gong, cake, to go round beating the watch. They indicate final t.

1032. 1 tang, 1, tong, "eldership of five hundred families.” 尙

From shang 501 phonetic, and R. black. Parties, assist, one-sided. 1033. hien, 3, hin, "offer in sacrifice." From kiuen "dog

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72 (here referring to a kind of dog anciently used in offerings to ancestors), and the remainder phonetic.

1034. ko, 4, kok, "to look timidly and furtively." From kü 1023, and yeu "the hand." This phonetic is important in the proof of final k having existed in 1023. See also 957. To dig, R. metal. Look, R. see. Fear, R. heart.


yen, 5, ngem, "strict," "venerable." From kam "dare" 815, phonetic, and two mouths to indicate strict prohibition.-Tt. pa, 4, pak, "black part of the new moon," "usurper,"


"use violence." R. moon below.

In Kw R. rice above inclosed in R. cover, kiung and
Same as p'ak "animal soul." Pak in Kwy.

1037.shu, 4, 8, chok, tok, zhok, dok, "belonging to." The root is the same with sok, lik, zik, "to bind," tsu, dzok, "tribe." The upper part is wu, 4, ok, "house," abbreviated. For the five strokes in the middle see tsi, tsik, "spine" 632. The remainder is from 929, which is here phonetic. The upper part, says Sw, is wei "tail." The tail is a continuation of the body.

1037a. tie, 8, dip, "fold over," "doubled," "place in layers." The upper part, t'ien "field," is the sign of anything flat and square. It is written three times as a sign of repeatedly laying something upon something else. The lower part is half of to, tap, "many" 265. See 793, 881, lei, lit.

10376.ting, 1, 3, t'im, "hear." The lower left-hand part is like 90a and t'ing in 341, 373. Sam "three" agrees in sound nearly with the phonetic t'ing 50a, as it resembles it also in shape. Sam "three" was anciently tam, and therefore three strokes were used for the sound tam when its meaning was very different. In Kw jen 50a is on the right, and R. ear on the left. Same radically as ling "hear," and sheng "sound" 743.

1038. nang, 5, nong, "bag," "pocket." The upper seven strokes are shok "to bind," here a radical, though not regarded as such by the compilers of dictionaries. The phonetic is siang 1005.

1039. on the left, and on the right R. 4, having below it, kung, 3, "to give." Also kan, kam, RR. water, bamboo. In this

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phonetic lies concealed a curious and convincing proof of the change from final m to ng. K'am and kam occur in Kwy, with RR. grass, water, square vessel, and 164 yeu. In Kwy, R. tooth ya occurs instead of kung "work." This suggests a connexion with kiang "descend" 271. The radical is pei "shell." The rest is phonetic.

1040.ling, 5, "efficacious," "soul," "influence." From rain. From R. rain and wu "enchanter."-Tt. This author says the enchanter by his reverential divination brings spirits down, and is able to foretell future events. Sw says it is from R. rain to denote the celestial source of beneficial influences, and from R. yü "jade-stone."

Note. The preceding phonetics with the radicals of the first chapter form a body of between 1200 and 1300 signs. They constitute the basis of Chinese writing, and by compounding them in various ways most of the remaining characters are formed.

The native etymologists, whose researches have been made use of in the preceding explanations of the formation of characters, have naturally in each case selected from the old shapes that presented themselves some one which was at the same time old and easy to explain. Sometimes they explain new forms, and leave the primitive shape unaccounted for. But they deserve on the whole the greatest praise for their ingenuity, industry, and judgment.

By omitting all compounds, the number of phonetics may be greatly reduced; but for the student this would not be the best course to adopt.




THE natives of China rejoice to trace all useful inventions and new attainments in knowledge to their ancient sages. Among these some are mythical and others historical. The invention of writing belongs to mythical times.

Chinese accounts say that Fu hi taught the method of cutting certain symbols on wood, that is to say, the Eight Diagrams are believed to have been engraved. Hien yuen taught the use of a knife as the implement in writing. Shun made the first writing brushes, and employed black paint as an ink, and oblong strips of bamboo to receive the writing. Another author ascribes the first use of the brush in writing to T'sang kie, who also first recommended glue and paint to write with and pieces of silk to write upon.

Cheu kung, who died B.c. 1105, is said to have painted with a brush the shapes he saw upon the shell of a tortoise.

When it is stated that Meng kwa invented the writing brush B.C. 220, this is explained as meaning that he improved it, for writing by the brush is mentioned twice in earlier books, viz. the Shu king in speaking of Cheu, and the Li ki in the passage Shi tsai pi, "the historian carries a brush."

The brush of Meng kwa is supposed to have been made of deer's hair, while later it was common to use the hair of hares, black sheep, squirrels, weasels, rats, and foxes. For the handle, ivory, rhinoceros' horn, rock crystal, and particular kinds of wood were employed. Afterwards bamboo handles became common.

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In the fifth year of T'ai k'ang, A.D. 280, the Roman Emperor made a present to the Emperor of China of 30,000 sheets of paper, who ordered the Ch'un t'sieu of Confucius, with the text, comments and explanation, to be written upon them. Paper is spoken of in China before that time, but not before the Han dynasty, and it should be kept in mind that commerce in the Indian Ocean, and caravans passing through Parthia and Turkestan, would introduce paper and ink during a long period before the mention of the 30,000 sheets.

Paper has been made in China from hemp, from mulberry bark, and from tender bamboo. Rattan, moss, wheat stalks, rice stalks, cocoons, have all been tried and used on a limited scale. The word chi "paper" means a thin flat fold of silk or linen. Others say

it means something smooth, as a grindstone, which is called by the same name. The radical of paper is silk. stone. The phonetic is shi, di, ti, 106 . Ti

That of a grindstone is is also used.

Ts'ai lun in the reign of Hwo ti, A.D. 264, made paper of old linen by pounding and maceration. He also used fishing nets, hemp, and bark. To him is commonly attributed in China the invention of paper.

In the cyclopædia Ke chï king yuen, a passage is quoted from the work Tung t'ien t'sing lu, "Exact account of investigations into heaven," which states that anciently a bamboo style was dipped in paint and used as a writing implement. From the third century of our era downwards, writers began to use ink balls made of lampblack and pine-wood soot, which I suppose to be made by the Chinese after their becoming acquainted with Greek ink. They were rubbed in concave ink stones.

The word mek "ink" means black, and is the same etymologically as mei "coal." Final k has been lost from both of them. Ink stones are called yen, from yen "to grind." Flat and concave ink stones are now used. In the temple of Confucius the ink stone that he used is said to be still preserved.

The Chinese never appear to have used the style in writing. The knife was employed in cutting characters, and the brush in writing them, in ancient as in modern times.

Sw states that when the writing is upon bamboo or on silk or 1 Literally, "paint smoke mixed with pine-wood soot."

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