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of similar words in the two systems may be hopefully discussed.
It is a matter of great satisfaction to me, that in this book I respond to his challenge in Actes, p. 186, to bring forward the proofs of my readings of old Chinese sounds. I wish they were more complete, but hope that the citations from native authorities such as the Kwang yün1 will inspire confidence in the correctness of my renderings.
The Appendices have been separately printed at Geneva, under the kind care of M. François Turrettini.
Here will be found specimens of old forms of the characters, and among them the radicals of the Shwo wen in the Siau chwen, or small Seal character. Also rules for the pronunciation of words given with the syllabic spelling in K'ang hi. The right use of the tables of sound in K'ang hi is very important in the search for the old sounds. Students who have been familiar only with the Mandarin or Canton pronunciations, and who may not be accustomed to make use of the initials b, d, g, dj, dz, will find in K'ang hi's tables proof of their existence.
A kind friend in China, interested in the progress of Chinese philology, has assisted in the publication of this work.
1 A copy of the Kwang yun, with the initials and finals marked in the margin, may now be consulted in the British Museum.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
GENERAL VIEW OF THE CHINESE PICTURE WRITING.
Lines, Shapes and Coverings. Natural and Artificial Objects.
his Relations and Circumstances. Parts of the Body. Animals.
Plants and Agriculture. Implements, Clothing, and the Useful Arts.
Their Number. First arranged by Callery.
Value as Indicating the Sounds of Words when the Characters were made.
Phonetics often acquire two or more Sounds. They present a View of the
Chinese Syllabary and the Changes it has Undergone. List of Phonetics
The Implements of Writing, Ancient and Modern.
THE SIX PRINCIPLES IN THE FORMATION OF THE CHARACTERS.
The Lu shu as exhibited in the Dictionaries Shwo wen, Lu shu ku. Ex-
amples. Pictures of Ideas. Pictures of Objects. Pictures of Suggestion.
New Characters made by Change in Position of Old Ones. Phonetic Charac-
Research shows that the Chinese Language is not Compound. Sources
for the History. 1. Phonetic Characters. 2. Rhymes of Old Poetry. Results
of the Researches of Twan yu t'sai. The Seventeen Classes of Old Rhymes.
3. Tonic Dictionaries. 4. Old Transcriptions, Japanese, Corean, Cochin
Example of Letter Change in European Languages, k to ch. Chinese
Letter Changes. 1. Surd and Sonant from Simple Mutes. 2. Formation
of Aspirated Mutes. 3. Changes in the Throat Letters. 4. Changes in the
Palatal Region. 5. Changes in Tooth Letters. 6. Changes in Lip Letters.
A. Lithographed Examples of Ancient Forms of Characters.
B. Examples to show that Words in s, sh, ch, ts, come from the same Roots
C. How to use K'ang hi.
D. Two Old Poems to Illustrate the History of the Sounds.
E. Account of the Fang Yen, an Old Book on Dialects.
F. A List of Sanscrit Words in Buddhist Literature to illustrate the History
G. Radicals of the Shwo wen in the Siau chwen.
H. Callery's Primary Strokes of the Modern Writing.
CHINESE BOOKS USED.
Shu king. Book of History.
Shi king. The Odes, or Collection of Ancient Poetry of the Court and of the Provinces.
Er ya. Dictionary of Archaisms. A work of the latter part of the Cheu dynasty. Kwo p'u added the sounds and sense of doubtful words, a.d. 343.
Sw. Shwo wen.
Fy. Fang yen. Work by Yang hiung.
Kya. Kwang ya. One of the first Dictionaries containing the syllabic spelling. Only words looked on as doubtful are spelled. Chang yi collected the words. T'sau hien explained them and fixed the pronunciation in the Sui dynasty. He cites Kwo p'u's edition of the Fy for the sound of some rare words. Yp. Yü pien. Dictionary by Ku ye wang, A.D. 543. Arranged according to radicals. Syllabic spelling used throughout.
Kwy. Kwang yun. Dictionary arranged throughout like Ty, Tsy, Yh, Chy, according to initials and finals. It was apparently the first of this kind. A.D. 600. The work of an Imperial Commission. Contains the pronunciation of the period in Central China. Republished by Ku yen wu in the seventeenth century.
Chy. Hung wu
of the Ming dynasty.
cheng yün. Dictionary made by order of Hung wu, founder Cited in Kh.
Lsk. Lu shu ku. Kh. K'ang hi tsï according to the radicals.
The most valuable of recent dictionaries. Arranged Published A.D. 1717.
NAMES OF AUTHORS REFERRED TO BY THEIR
Kp. Kwo p'u. An ancient explainer of the classics. A.D. 343. One of the most influential of the founders of the syllabic spelling.
Tt. Tai tung, the learned author of Lu shu ku, in the twelfth century.
Tyt. Twan yü tsai. Author of Lu shu yin yün piau. The most successful of recent investigators into ancient sounds. End of eighteenth century.