« AnteriorContinuar »
youth, however, went to her and lay down. It got day and he arose. He was not dead. They departed for the house of the sqapts. The latter said: "A stranger landed." Then they went on and came to the fish samL. They landed and the youth said: "This is a good country. Here are pretty girls." They avoided the house of the fish t'li. They left her and she laughed. Then the youth and the Salmon said: "They are glad and make merry in this town. They are laughing." They went on and reached the house of the k''apai' salmon. Her town was bad. They went on to the house of the silver salmon and landed. They looked about and the youth and the salmon saw the place where the women went bathing. A man was sitting at the bank of the pond. The youth exchanged cloths with him. Then the girls came and bathed. They went into the water and the youth washed them, but they recognized him. They ran away and cried. They were afraid. Then they returned to the house of the fish samL. The youth married her. He thought he had stayed away one night, but it was two seasons. The youth had two children. Now the salmon made his canoe ready and they went to visit the house of the youth's father. They arrived there and found the youth's father sitting at his salmon weir crying. Then the youth pulled the rope and lifted the net. The father recognized his son. He saw him at the salmon weir. Then all the people came to the house of the old man. The youth told him to clean it. Then he entered the house of his father, and he related to all of them: "The salmon desires to have cedarbark." It is said that the salmon eat it. (He stayed there with his wife and his children.) Then the (other) children quarreled and fought with them. Then she grew angry and deserted her husband.
There was a hunting hut at the water.
Anaik sto'o He wished wunaqE'nq
8. THE ASCENT TO HEAVEN.
x'sgyasqs. Sxik !x is
to go up.
SL'iu'kts'awa." what I said."
ti sōnx' t'aix.
Ix'é'eqsātis, He cured them, Skoa'tstatit x'i They called him the ta koxlā lêmxautx. Axsānix'tôsto'o ta the their country. k!x litsts I saw him tsō'tkuts
He made know
x tok sto ttq. he worked on them.
ta q'oalê'mts." the my elder brother."
tsitstsipē'. birds. Kx tisto'o He saw
sâ/axist younger brother "K!x litsts, "I saw him, nu'kLootsE'mno," liar you," "Ts'ak o'liwa "I speak the truth "A'xkō ai'ōts "Not he says
ĕ'mats he goes
ts'e'kims k'a ēma'ts sk'a
SLōkoa las he found something supernatural smatЕ/mx'stx sk'a wuntsti's tu people and killed with the naxe'ntx. Sk'a ēnate's to ducks. And he gave them to the Tsaiōtstutisktô'o. Anoai'k stuts ska
That is all.
SōLau'tx. their house.
Ai'lutstx, axkō tsnuk sa'axaLE/ms. He left him, he returned. tisktô'o wa tsitstsipē' ats ska them down the birds and
ōstxs. and enters.
He informed them anoaik sto'o sk'a tElaxō'im he wished and he showed
lē'puts uL ta sōnx t'aix'. returned to the sun that one. sâ'axistx snuL'api'k skoalu'ts. ALtsâ'axatisktô'o. the younger brother he wished to accompany He did not want him him. to go.
s'aLōkoala'stx his supernatural power the sk'a sq'altōtis.
taia'mk.. he threw
SL'Emstana'lōsiLs. us Indians.
(Two brothers built) a hut for hunting (birds) on a river. They shot birds. One of them wished to go up to see the sun. (When he reached the sky) he saw ducks. He found something supernatural. (The ducks were blind.) He cured them by spitting on their eyes. Then they regained their eyesight. They called him Smōq'oa'ns. He returned and his younger brother saw him. He went and told their father: "I saw my elder brother." "Why do you tell such lies," replied the father. "I speak the truth." "Then call him." "He says he will not come. He does not want to enter a dirty room. He will come and enter when it is clean." The father invited the people and they cleaned the house. The people washed themselves. When they were ready he canie. He entered. He informed them how he had found a supernatural helper. He wished to show his power to them and killed many ducks by the aid of his supernatural helper, and he gave the meat to the people of his town. That is all. Then he wished to return to the sun. His younger brother cried and wished to accompany him, but he did not want him to go. He left him and did not return. He became a supernatural being. He threw down birds and made us Indians happy.
The Varying Ratio between Gold and Silver.
By Frederick Prime.
Mr. Prime made some remarks on the varying ratio between gold and silver. Between 1637 and 1861 the ratio of silver to gold varied between 1: 14.14 (1760) and 1 : 16.25 (1813). But in 1862 silver reached a value from which there has been a steady decrease, with slight exceptions, up to the present time. The ratio for this period has been as follows:
1 : 16.17
1 : 16.59
.1 : 20.92
The percentage of production of the two metals since 1831 is as follows, given in values, not in weights:
In consequence of the demonetization of silver and the consequent increased demand for gold, which has increased in value judging by its increased purchasing power, the output of the world in this metal has increased materially.
In 1891 there were produced...196,586 kilograms In 1893 ...236,574 *Twenty-second Annual Report Director of the Mint, 1894. PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXXIV. 147. G.
$130,450,000 = 157,228,100
PRINTED MAY 8, 1895.
Africa has most markedly increased its output, and in 1893 became the third producing portion of the world, the output being almost entirely in South Africa. While in 1891 Africa produced 23,687 kilograms = $15,742,400, this had increased, in 1893, to 44,096 kilograms $29,305,800, and it is probable this output will be greatly increased in the near future. Of the remaining large gold-producing countries the output for 1893 is estimated to be as follows:
It is thus apparent that Africa has surpassed Russia.
With the greatly increased output of gold, the fields known to be rich but still undeveloped (South Africa, Australia and South America), and with the downward tendency of silver, it seems impossible that bi-metallism can exist for any length of time in the near future, even by the consent of all the nations of the globe. Gold may be made the circulating medium, or silver may be; but with the continual disparity in value between the two metals, which is not constant but varying daily, the two can only coëxist in subsidiary coinage, where they are mere tokens.
The fact is frequently lost sight of that gold and silver are only articles of merchandise like wheat, cotton or iron, and intrinsically are of less value than any of the three latter. A coin only means that the country whose stamp it bears guarantees it to be of a certain weight and to contain a certain percentage of gold or silver. Common agreement has made these articles of merchandise the means of paying balances, as a matter of convenience.
The Significance of the Jugal Arch.
By Daniel Denison Slade.
(Read before the American Philosophical Society, March 15, 1895.)
It is difficult to explain why that portion of the mammalian cranium which presents so prominent and striking a feature, even to the most careless observer, as does the jugal or zygomatic arch, should not have been considered worthy of more extended scientific notice than it has received. Cuvier, in his admirable treatise, Anatomie Comparée, seems to have been the only writer, familiar to us, who has comprised the anatomy and physiology of this region in any lengthy description.
While the present paper does not pretend to have, by any means, exhausted the subject, it claims to have brought together for the first time, under the light of modern science, a concise statement of the chief modifications which the arch undergoes in the various orders of the Mammalia.
This osseous bridge connecting the lateral regions of the cranium with those of the face is often composed of three bones, the malar or jugal in the centre, flanked on either side by the zygomatic process of the squamosal and by the malar process of the maxilla. Again, it may be reduced to two, the process of the squamosal and the jugal, or the process of the squamosal and the postorbital process of the frontal. The number of bones present depends upon the advanced or receding position occupied by the orbit, also upon the position held by the articulation of the mandible in relation to the orbital cavity, whether this be above, below, or on a level with the latter. Although the arch in certain cases is imperfect, it can rarely be said to be entirely absent.
The strength of the jugal arch, the most important factor in its existence, depends upon its line of direction, whether this be straight or curved, and upon the amount and manner of this curvature; upon the number, size, extent of surface, and mode of union of its component bones. These, in their turn, are correlated with the articulation of the lower jaw, and with the amount of surface presented by the ascending ramus; with the neighboring fossæ, crests and processes; with the dental series, and necessarily with the muscles concerned in mastication, varied as these are in their action.
The jugal arch, as it exists in the Carnivora, offers an instructive example of the various points to be considered in its morphology. In the tiger, for example, the arch, composed of three bones-the squamosal, malar and maxilla-presents an extraordinary horizontal curvature, thereby vastly increasing its expanse, giving great width to the temporal muscle, which taking its origin from the largely expanded surface of the parietal, and from the occipital sagittal crest, passes forwards and downwards, to be inserted into the high, wide, oblique, coronoid process of the mandible. This increase in length of the arch, due to the great horizontal curvature, is also seconded by the advanced position of the orbit upon the skull, and by its height above the level of the articulation of the mandible.
The vertical curvature of the arch, with the convexity above and concavity below, denotes increased power of resistance to the strain produced by the muscular fibres of the masseter, which, springing from the under side of the arch, are carried obliquely backwards and downwards to be inserted into the deeply grooved ascending ramus. The action of the pterygoids, which is similar to that of the masseter, is also relatively powerful. The fibres rising from the pterygoid fossa and plates are inserted into the inside of the angular portion of the lower jaw, and into the neck of the condyle. The suture by which the processes of the squamosal and jugal are joined, extends very obliquely through a greater por· tion of the arch; this obliquity imparting much strength to the bony structure, and thereby enabling it to resist the upward pressure.
The convex surface of the transverse condyle of the mandible, received into the deeply grooved glenoid cavity, forms the hinge-like articulation fitted for the vertical action of the jaw, and which is necessary for the pre