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land, Upolu in Samoa and Joinville in Brazil. The wide distribution of this, the largest of land planarians, has doubtless been brought about through the agency of man, the well-marked genus being indigenous only in Japan, China, India, Ceylon, the Malay Archipelago and the East Indies, but this species, Bipalium kewense, has never been found in these countries; its home is unknown.

The purpose of this communication is to record the existence of the species in the United States. It is quite abundant in Cambridge, Mass., and has been found there in two different greenhouses. A methodical search would no doubt reveal it in others of the many greenhouses in the vicinity. The largest of the Cambridge specimens measured 300 mm. in length, with a diameter of 4 mm., shorter individuals measuring from 15 mm. upward with the same diameter of 4 mm. The smallest of the specimens always lack the semilunar head end, they being without doubt, the products of reproduction by transverse division in which the head end had not yet regenerated.

In 1892 Sharp' published the description of a Bipalium from a greenhouse in Landsdown, Pennsylvania, which he called B. manubriatum. It was suggested by Colin' that Sharp's specimen was nothing else than B. kewense, for with the exception of the statement that the median stripe is the broadest of the longitudinal markings, the descriptions of B. manubriatum agrees in every way with that of B. kewense. Variations in the width of the median band in different regions of the same individual of B. kewense have been described and figured by Richtert and Bergendal,' and Dendy has shown the great variability of land planarians within a single species both as regards color and markings. There can be little doubt, therefore, that the single specimen studied by Sharp was the Bipalium kewense of Moseley.

The writer would be grateful for any information as to the occurrence of the species in other parts of the United States, and would be glad to have material from other localities.

2 Sharp, B. On a probable New Species of Bipalium. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1891, pp. 120-123, 1892.

3 Colin, A. Mittheilungen über Würmer. Sitzungsb. Gesell. naturf. Freunde Berlin, Jahrg. 1892, No. 9, pp. 164–166.

* Richter, F. Bipalium kewense Moseley eine Landplanarie des Palmen hauses zu Frankfurt, A. M. Zool. Garten, Jahrg , XVIII, pp. 231-234, 1887.

5 Bergendal, D. Studien über Turbellarien. I. Ueber die Vermehrung durch Quertheilung des Bipalium Kewense Moseley. Kongl. Svenska. Vetensk-Akad. Handl., Bd. XXV, No. 4, 42, pp. 1 Pl., 1892.

6 Dendy, A. Notes on Some New and Little-known Land planarians from Tasmania and South Australia. Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, Vol. VI, pp. 178–188, Pl. X, 1893.


Procotyla fluviatilis was first described by Leidy' in 1852 under the name of Dendrocoelum superbum Girard. In Stimpson's Prodromuss (1858) we find for the first time the form under Procotyla fluviatilis Leidy M S. with the synonym Dendrocoelum superbum Leidy (non Girard). Stimpson's nomenclature evidently being taken from manu. script notes of Leidy, but Leidy himself did not use the name Procotyla fluviatilis until 1885. In 1893 Girard" in an exhaustive pa per op North American Turbellaria makes a new species out of Leidy's first description, which was not his (Girard's) D. superbum, calling it Procotyla Leidy (with the synonym Dendrocælum superbum Leidy (non Girard), and also retains P. fluviatilis as a second species of Procotyla. In other words, Girard in the same work under two different names gives two different descriptions of the same species. He thus adds greatly to the confusion existing in our knowledge of North American Turbellaria. When our Turbellaria become better known there is reason to believe that the existing large list of species will be much reduced.

A careful study of the structure of Procotyla fluviatilis bas convinced the writer that this, one of the commonest of our freshwater planarians, is identical with the widely distributed Dendrocælum lacteum Oersted of Europe, and that the genus Procotyla should be abandoned. It was predicted by Hallez" that Procotyla would be eliminated when its internal structure should become known. The anatomy and histology of Dendrocoelum lacteum has been most carefully worked out by Iijima." His account and figures agree in every way with the American form, as does also the older account of Oscar Schmidt.13 The variation in

"Leidy, J. Corrections and Additions to former Papers on Helminthology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Vol. V, pp. 288-289, 1852. name of Dendrocælum superbum Girard. In Stimpson's Prodronius

• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Vol. IX, pp. 23, 1857.

Leidy, J. Planarians. The Museum, Vol. I, No. 4, p. 5. Philadelphia, 1885.

10 Girard, Ch. Recherches sur les Planariés et les Némertiens du l'Amérique du Nord. Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. Tom., XV, pp. 164-166, 1893.

11 Hallez, P. Catalogue des Turbellariés (Rhabdoccelides, Triclades et Poly. cladee ) du Nord de le France, etc. Revue Biol. du Noru de la France, T. IV No. 11, p. 454, 1892.

12 Iijima, I. Untersuchungen über den Bau und die Entwickelungeschichte der Süsswasser-Dendrocælen (Trichleden). Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Bd. XL, PP359.464, Taf. XX-XXIII, 1884.

13 Schmidt, 0. Unterschungen über Turbellarien von Corfu und Cephalonia, Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. Bd. XI, pp. 1-30, Taf. I--IV, 1862.


the number of the eyes in the American form appears to be peculiar, as no mention is made of it in any of the foreign descriptions. In about thirty per cent. of the individuals there are more than the normal number (two) of eyes, the number varying from three to eight, three being the number most frequently occuring.

A detailed account of this and other American Turbellaria, based upon collections made by the Illinois State Natural History Survey and submitted to the writer for study, is in course of preparation.W. McM. WOODWORTH.

On the Genus Callisaurus.-Two new species of this genus present lateral fringes of the toes. These are not so well developed as in the species referred to Uma, but they are sufficiently so to show that the latter name must be abandoned, and the species referred to it be placed in Callisaurus. Thus, Uma notata Baird, U. scoparia Cope, U. rufopunctatu Cope, etc., must be called Callisaurus notatus, etc. The two new species referred to are both from lower California.

CALLISAURUS CRINITUS—Callisaurus dracontoides Cope, Proceeds. U. S. Natl. Museum, 1889, p. 147. Two series of frontal scales, separated from the rather larger supraoculars by two (or one) rows of small scales. Large supraoculars in four or five longitudinal rows, the inner row largest, the patch bounded by granular scales anteriorly and posteriorly. Interparietal plate longer than wide. Hind leg reaching to front of orbit. Second, third and fourth fingers with well-developed fringes, which are weak on the inner side of the second and third. External side of second, third and fourth toes with welldeveloped fringes. Femoral pores twenty-three, the scales which they perforate in contact with each other. Color above as in C. draconoides. Below a blue patch on each side, with three large oblique black spots and a trace of a fourth. Total length 200 mm., head and body 87 mm., hind leg 72 mm. U.S. N. M., No. 14,895, one specimen..

The differences from C. draconoides are the digital fringes, the larger number of femoral pores on adjacent scales, and the three or four black spots of the belly patch; the shorter hind legs, and the longer, interparietal plate. This species has the larger size of the form C. draconoides ventralis.

CALLISAURUS RHODOSTICTUS—One row of frontal scales separated by small scales from the rather obscure patch of supraoculars. Interparietal as wide as long. Gular scales subequal. The hind leg extended, reaches to and beyond the end of the muzzle. Well developed fringes on the external sides of the fingers and toes, excepting on the

first and fifth. Femoral pores fifteen and sixteen, in scales which are separated by intervening scales. Coloration above as in C. draconoides; below a blue patch on each side which is crossed by three oblique black spots, the third generally followed by a fourth black spot, which does not reach the abdominal border. In front of the blue patch and posterior to the axilla a large rosy spot. A large rosy spot on the gular region. Size smaller, equal the C. draconoides draconoides. Numerous specimevs from lower California from A. W. Anthony. As this species was accompanied by Uta parviscutata V. den B. and Crotalus ruber Cope, the locality is not the Cape San Lucas country. It approaches nearer the C. draconoides than does the C. crinitus. The differences are, the digital fringes, the three or four black abdominal spots, and the rose spots on the sides and throat.-E. D. COPE.

The Food of Birds.-A report upon the food habits of the catbird (Galeoscoptes carolinensis) the brown thrasher (Harporhyncus rufus) the mocking bird Mimus polyglottus) and the house wren (Troglodytes aëdon) by S. D. Judd, contains the following information. The wren is exclusively insectivorus, and, therefore highly beneficial to agricul. ture. Among the pests destroyed by this bird are the snout beetles, of which the plum curculio is a familiar example. Stink bugs and caterpillars, both of which are plant feeders, are also made way with in large numbers. The catbird and thrasher do much less good than the wren because of their mixed diet of animal and vegetable food, the proportion of the former in the thrasher being 63 per cent., that in the catbird 44, for the entire season. The number of mocking birds examined was only 15, so that their character, as friend or foc of the agriculturist, is still undetermined. The stomachs of those examined, however, indicate that the bulk of their food is animal.

Mr. Judd concludes his report by advising farmers to secure the services of the wren by putting up nesting boxes for them, and protecting them from the quarrelsome English sparrows.

A second interesting paper on the food habits of birds records the results of the examination by Mr. F. E. L. Beal of the stomachs of 238 meadow larks, and 113 Baltimore orioles. The meadow lark is a ground feeder and the great bulk of its food is grasshoppers, of which it consumes an enormous number. The other insects eaten are ants, bugs, caterpillars and beetle larvæ.

The oriole feeds largely on caterpillars and wasps, eating so many of the former that it is a highly important beneficial factor in agricultural work.

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A summary of the stomach contents for the whole year shows that nearly three-fourths of the food of the meadow lark for the year, including the winter mouths, consists of insects.

The oriole has a similarly good record. The food for the whole season consisted of 83.4 per cent. of animal matter and 16.6 per cent. of vegetable matter.

These statistics show the importance of according these birds the protection they so well deserve. (Year book Dept. Agri. for 1895. Washington, 1896.

Preliminary Description of a New Vole from Labrador. -In the summer of 1895, Mr. C. H. Goldthwaite made a trip to Hamilton Inlet, Labrador, to collect mammals for the Bangs Collection. The material he got is of much interest, but as I am obliged to delay publishing a full account of it for the present, I take this opportunity of making known apparently the only new species he took-a rather remarkable vole.


Eighty specimens, all taken in the immediate vicinity of Hamilton Inlet.

Type from Hamilton Inlet, Labrador.

No. 3973, 6, old adult; collection of E. A. and O. Bangs; collected July 15, 1895, by C. H. Goldthwaite. Total length, 210; tail vertebræ, :67 ; hind-foot, 22:5.

General characters : Size medium (about that of M. pennsylvanicus); tail long; hind-foot large and strong; colors dark with a sooty brown cast to upper parts; skull differing in many minor particulars from that of any eastern vole; molar teeth extremely small and weak, the tooth row very short; incisor teeth long and projecting.

Color: Upper parts a dark burnt umber brown, with many blacktipped hairs intermixed, and a general sooty cast; nose patch the same. Underparts dark gray (some specimens in fresh pelage slightly washed with buffy). Feet and hands dusky. Tail indistinctly bicolored, black above, dark gray beneath.

Cranial characters: Skull rather small (smaller than the skulls of examples of M. pennsylvanicus, the external measurements being substantially) the same; rostrum slender and straight; audital bullæ of moderate size, very round; palate without so pronounced a “step” as that of pennsylvanicus. Incisor teeth, both upper and under, long, slender and projecting outward at a decided angle. Molar teeth very weak and small, the tooth row averaging 1 m. shorter than in skulls of

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