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rest on characters, we must continue to depend on their indications, no matter whether the result gives us phyletic series or not.

In the next place, we must remember that we have in every country interruptions in the sequence of the geological formations, which will give us structural breaks until they are filled. There are also periods when organic remains were not preserved; these also will give us interruptions in our series. So we shall have to adhere to our customary method without regard to theory, and if the phyletic idea is correct, as I believe it to be, it will appear in the final result, and at some future time.

Authors are frequently careless in their definitions. Very often they include, in the definition of the order, characters which belong in that of the family, and in that of the family those that belong in the genus. Characters of different values are thus mixed. The tendency, especially with naturalists who have only studied limited groups, is to overestimate the importance of characters.

Thus the tendency is to propose too many genera and other divisions of the higher grades. In some groups structure has been lost sight of altogether, and color patterns, dimensions, and even geographical range, treated as characters of genera. As the mass of knowledge increases, however, the necessity for precision will become so pressing that this kind of formulation will be discarded, and definitions which mean something will be employed. Search will be made especially for that one character which the nature of the series renders it probable will survive, as discoveries of intermediate forms are successively made, and here the tact and precision of the taxonomist has the opportunity for exercise. In the selection of these characters, one problem will occasionally present itself. The sexes of the same species sometimes display great disparity of developmental status, sometimes the male, but more frequently the female, remaining in a relatively imınature stage, or in others presenting an extraordinary degeneracy. In these cases the sex that displays what one might call the genius, or in other words, the tendency, of the entire group, will furnish the definitions. This will generally be that one which displays the most numerous characters. In both the cases mentioned the male will furnish these rather than the female; but in a few cases the female furnishes them. The fact that both sexes do not present them does not invalidate them, any more than the possession of distinct reproductive systems would refer the sexes to different natural divisions.

I have seen characters objected to as of little value because they were absent or inconstant in the young. I only mention the objection to show how superficially the subject of taxonomy may be treated. So that a character is constant in the adult, the time of its appearance in development is immaterial in a taxonomic sense, though it may have important phylogenetic significance.


The formulation of a phylogeny or genealogy involves, as a preliminary, a clear taxonomy. I refer to hypothetical phylogenies, such as those which we can at present construct are in large part. A perfect phylogeny would be a clear taxonomy in itself, so far as it should go, did we possess one; and such we may hope to have ere long, as a result of paleontological research. But so long as we can only supply parts of our phyletic trees from actual knowledge, we must depend on a clear analysis of structure as set forth in a satisfactory taxonomy, such as I have defined above.

Confusion in taxonomy necessarily introduces confusion into phylogeny. Confusion of ideas is even more apparent in the work of phylogenists than in that of the taxonomists, because a new but allied element enters into the formulation. It is in the highest degree important for the phylogenist, whether he be constructing a genealogic tree himself or endeavoring to read that constructed by some one else, to be clear as to just what it is of which he is tracing the descent. Is he tracing the descent of species from each other, or of genera from each other, or of orders from each other, or what ? When I trace the phylogeny of the horse, unless I specify, it cannot be known whether I am tracing that of the species Equus caballus, or that of the genus Equus, or that of the family Equidæ. When one is tracing the phylogeny of species, he is tracing the descent of the numerous characters which define a species. This is a complex problem, and but little progress has been made in it from the paleontologic point of view. Something has been done with regard to the descent of some living species from each other. But when we are considering the descent of a genus, we restrict ourselves to a much more simple problem, i. e., the descent of the few simple characters that distinguish the genus from other genera.

Hence, we have made much more progress in this kind of phylogeny than with that of species, especially from the paleontologic point of view. The problem is simplified as we rise to still higher divisions, i. e., to the investigation of the origin of the characters which define them. We can positively affirm many things now as to the origin of particular families and orders, especially among the Mammalia, where the field has been better explored than elsewhere.

It is in this field that the unaccustomed hand is often seen. Supposing some phyletic tree alleges that such and such has been the line of descent of such and such orders or families, as the case may be; soon a critic appears who says that this or that point is clearly incorrect, and gives his reasons. These reasons are that there is some want of correspondence of generic characters between the genera of the say two families alleged to be phyletically related. And this want of correspondence is supposed to invalidate the allegation of phyletic relation between the families. But here is a case of irrelevancy; a generic character cannot be introduced in a comparison of family characters. In the case selected, the condition is to be explained by the fact that although the families are phyletically related, one or both of the two juxtaposed genera through which the transition was accomplished has or have not been discovered.

The same objection may be made against an allegation of descent of some genus from another, because the phyletic relation between the known species of the two genera cannot be demonstrated. I cite as an example the two genera, Hippotherium and Equus, of which the latter has been asserted with good reason to have descended from the former. It has been shown, however, that the Equus caballus could not have descended from the European Hippotherium mediterraneum, and hence some writers have jumped to the conclusion that the alleged phyletic relation of the two genera does not exist. The reasons for denying this descent are, however, presented by specific characters only, and the generic characters are in no way affected. Further, we know several species of Hippotherium which could have given origin to the Equus caballus probably through intermediate species of Equus.

Some naturalists are very uncritical in criticising phylogenies in the manner I have just described. They often neglect to ascertain the definitions given by an author to a group alleged by him to be ancestral; but fitting to it some definition of their own, proceed to state that the ancestral position assigned to it cannot be correct, and to propose some new division to take its place. It is necessary to examine, in such cases, whether the new group so proposed is not really included in the definition of the old one which is discarded.

The fact that existing genera, families, etc., are contemporary need not invalidate their phyletic relation. Group No. 1 must have been contemporary with group No. 2, at the time that it gave origin to the latter, and frequently, though always, a certain number of representatives of group No. 1 have not changed, but have persisted to later periods. Some genera, as, e. g., Crocodilus, have given origin to other genera (i. e., Diplocynodon) and have outlasted it, for the latter

genus is now extinct. The lung fishes, Ceratodus, are probably ancestral to the Lepidosirens, but both exist to-day. Series of genera, clearly phyletic, of Batrachia Salientia, are contemporaries. Of course we expect that the paleontologic record will show that their appearance in time has been successive. But many ancestors are living at the same modern period as their descendents, though not always in the same geographic region.


Nomenclature is like pens, ink and paper; it is not science, but it is essential to the pursuit of science. It is, of course, for convenience that we use it but it does not follow from that that every kind of use of it is convenient. It is a rather common form of apology for misuse of it to state that as it is a matter of convenience, it makes no difference how many or how few names we recognize or use.

An illustration of this bad method is the practice of subdividing a genus of many species into many genera, simply because it has many species. The author who does this ignores the fact that a genus has a definite value, no matter whether it has one or five hundred species. I do not mean to maintain that the genus or any other value has an absolute fixity in all cases. They undoubtedly grade into each other at particular places in the system, but these cases must be judged on their own merits. In general there is no such gradation.

Nomenclature is then orderly because the things named have definite relations which it is the business of taxonomy, and nomenclature its spokesman, to state.

Here we have a fixed basis of procedure. In order to reach entire fixity, a rule which decides between rival names for the same thing is in force. This is the natural and rational law of priority. With the exception of some conservative botanists, all naturalists are, so for as I am aware, in the habit of observing this rule. The result of a failure to do so is self evident. There is, however, some difference of opinion as to what constitutes priority. Some of the aspects of the problem are simple, others more difficult. Thus there is little or no difference of opinion as to the rule that the name of a species is the first binomial which it received This is not a single date for all species, since some early authors who used trinomials and polynomials occasionally used binomials. A second rule which is found in all the codes, is that a name in order to be a candidate for adoption, must be accompanied by a descriptive diagnosis or a plate. As divisions above species cannot be defined by a plate, a description is essential in every such case.

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