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· Among the recent appointments to honorary membership in Learned Societies we notice, Sir W. H. Flower, by the Swedish Academy of Science; Prof. E. Ray Lankester, by the Russian Academy of Science; A. N. Beketow, Prof. Jas. Hall, Charles D. Walcott and Dr. G. Retzius by the St. Petersburg Academy of Science.
Dr. G. Lawson, botanist, of Halifax, N. S., died December 10th, 1895. It was owing to a confusion in names that the report of the death of the Canadian geologist, G. Dawson, arose.
The French Association for the Advancement of Science held its meeting this year at Tunis, from April 1 to 11. The Botanical Society of France, met at the same time and place.
Dr. George Baur, of the University of Chicago, will spend the summer in Munich, his former home, where he will study the rich paleontological collections of the University.
An expedition started, the middle of March to explore the interior of New Guinea. Dr. Lauterbach the leader takes charge of the botany, Dr. Kersting of the zoology.
The report of the death of the botanist K. Wilhelm, of Vienna is an error, caused by a confusion of names, his brother G. Wilhelm having died Nov. 30th, 1895.
Dr. H. M. Ward, of Cooper's Hill, England, accepts the Professorship of Botany in the University of Cambridge as successor to the late Professor Babbington.
Prof. K. G. Huefner, of Tübingen, has been called to the University of Strasburg where he succeeded the late Prof. Hoppe Seyler in the chair of Physiological Chemistry.
Prof. F. von Sandberger, who recently celebrated his fifty year Doctor-jubilee, has retired from the Professorship of Mineralogy in the University of Würzburg.
Prof. W. A. Locy, for several years Professor of Biology in Lake Forest University goes to Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., as Professor of Zoology.
H. A. Miers, assistant keeper in the British Museum, goes to the University of Oxford as Professor of Mineralogy, succeeding the late Professor Maskelyne.
Dr. H. Schauinsland, of Bremen, has gone to the Island of Laysan for a ten month's exploring expedition, intending to study both the flora and fauna.
Dr. Looss, for several years docent in the University of Leipzig, has been advanced to the position of Extraordinary Professor.
Dr. E. Sickenberger, Professor of Botany and Chemistry in the medical school of Cairo, Egypt, died December 10th, 1895.
Dr. L. Edinger, of Frankfort, A. M. well known for his researches on the brain, has been honored with the title of Professor.
Dr. F. Saccardo, has been appointed Professor of Plant Pathology in the school of Oenology and Viticulture at Avellino.
Dr. P. Tauber, of Berlin, has sailed for South America intending to study the plants of Brazil, Venezuela and Guinea.
Dr. G. Wagener, Professor of Anatomy in the University of Marburg, died February 10th, 1896, at the age of 70.
Dr. F. Hochstetter, formerly of Vienna, goes to the University of Innsbruck, as ordinary Professor of Anatomy.
Dr. Katzer, has been elected Director of the Mineralogical-Geological section of the Museum of Para, Brazil.
Dr. L. Neumann has been appointed Ordinary Professor of Geography at the University of Freiberg.
Dr. E. Topsent, of Rheims, has been called to the chair of zoology in the Medical School at Rennes, France.
Dr. Seidentopf, of Bremen, has been appointed Assistant in Minerology in the University of Göttingen.
Dr. G. Horvath of Budapesth has been appointed Director of the Royal Hungarian Museum, zoological section.
Lieut H. E. Barnes, well known through his studies of Asiatic ornithology, died recently at the age of 48.
Dr. A. Schadmberg, an investigator of the flora and ethnology of the Philippines, died recently in Manila.
Count J. von Bergenstamn, the well known student of the Diptera, died January 31, 1896 in Vienna.
Dr. A. Zimmermann, becomes Private docent in Vegetable Physiology in the University of Berlin.
Dr. L. Buscalone, of Turin, goes to the University of Göttingen as Assistant in Plant Physiology.
G. C. Druce has been elected Custodian of the Fielding herbarium of the University of Oxford.
In several recent publications I have developed, from different points of view, some considerations which tend to bring out a certain influence at work in organic evolution which I venture to call “a new factor." I give below a list of references to these publications and shall refer to them by number as this paper proceeds. The object of the present paper is to
References: (1). Imitation : a Chapter in the Natural History of Consciousness, Mind (London), Jan., 1894. Citations from earlier papers will be found in this article and in the next reference.
(2). Mental Development in the Child and the Race (1st. ed., April, 1895; 2nd. ed., Oct., 1895; Macmillan & Co. The present paper expands an additional chapter (Chap. XVII) added in the German and French editions and to be incorporated in the third English edition.
(3). Consciousness and Evolution, Science, N. Y., August, 23, 1895; reprinted printed in the AMERICAN NATURALIST, April, 1896.
(4). Heredity and Instinct (I), Science, March 20, 1896. Discussion before N. Y. Acad. of Sci., Jan. 31, 1896.
(5). Heredity and Instinct (II), Science, April 10, 1896.
(7). Consciousness and Evolution, Psychol. Review, May, 1896. Discussion before Amer. Psychol. Association, Dec. 28, 1895.
gather into one sketch an outline of the view of the process of development which these different publications have hinged upon.
The problems involved in a theory of organic development may be gathered up under three great heads: Ontogeny, Phylogeny, Heredity. The general consideration, the “ factor which I propose to bring out, is operative in the first instance, in the field of Ontogeny; I shall consequently speak first of the problem of Ontogeny, then of that of Phylogeny, in so far as the topic dealt with makes it necessary, then of that of Heredity, under the same limitation, and finally, give some definitions and conclusions.
Ontogeny : “ Organic Selection” (see ref. 2, chap. vii).—The series of facts which investigation in this field has to deal with are those of the individual creature's development; and two sorts of facts may be distinguished from the point of view of the functions which an organism performs in the course of his life history. There is, in the first place, the development of his heredity impulse, the unfolding of his heredity in the forms and functions which characterize his kind, together with the congenital variations which characterize the particular indi. ual—the phylogenetic variations, which are constitutional to him; and there is, in the second place, the series of functions, acts, etc., which he learns to do himself in the course of his life. All of these latter, the special modifications which an organism undergoes during its ontogeny, thrown together, have been called
acquired characters,” and we may use that expression or adopt one recently suggested by Osborn, “ontogenic variations ” (except that I should prefer the form "ontogenetic variations "), if the word variations seems appropriate at all.
Reported in Science, April 3rd.; also used by him before N. Y. Acad. of Sci., April 13th. There is some confusion between the two terminations "genic" and
genetic." I think the proper distinction is that which reserves the former, "genic," for application in cases in which the word to which it is affixed qualifies a term used actively, while the other, "genetic" conveys similarly a passive signification ; thus agencies, causes, influences, etc., and “ontogenic phylogenic, etc.," while effects, consequences, etc, and “ontogenetic, phylogenetic, etc."
Assuming that there are such new or modified functions, in the first instance, and such "acquired characters," arising by the law of “use and disuse" from these new functions, our farther question is about them. And the question is this: How does an organism come to be modified during its life history?
In answer to this question we find that there are three different sorts of ontogenic agencies which should be distinguished-each of which works to produce ontogenetic modifications, adaptations, or variations. These are: first, the physical agencies and influences in the environment which work upon the organism to produce modifications of its form and functions. They include all chemical agents, strains, contacts, hindrances to growth, temperature changes, etc. As far as these forces work changes in the organism, the changes may be considered largely “fortuitous " or accidental. Considering the forces which produce them I propose to call them “physico-genetic.” Spencer's theory of ontogenetic development rests largely upon the occurrence of lucky movements brought out by such accidental influences. Second, there is a class of modifications which arise from the spontaneous activities of the organism itself in the carrying out of its normal congenital functions.
These variations and adaptations are seen in a remarkable way in plants, in unicellular creatures, in very young children.
There seems to be a readiness and capacity on the part of the organism to “rise to the occasion,” as it were, and make gain out of the circumstances of its life. The facts have been put in evidence (for plants) by Henslow, Pfeffer, Sachs; (for micro-organisms) by Binet, Bunge; (in human pathology) by Bernheim, Janet; (in children) by Baldwin (ref. 2, chap. vi.) (See citations in ref. 2, chap. ix, and in Orr, Theory of Development, chap. iv). These changes I propose to call “ neuro-genetic,” laying emphasis on what is called by Romanes, Morgan and others, the "selective property” of the nervous system, and of life generally. Third, there is the great series of adaptations secured by conscious agency, which we may throw together as "psycho-genetic. " involved here are all classed broadly under the term "intelligent,” i. e., imitation, gregarious influences, maternal in