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Anchitherium. In the third and last type (Thoatherium Amegh.) the lateral digits have disappeared from both fore and hind feet (figs. C D), so that the condition is that of the genus Equus (fig. 81), but the splints in the Thoatherium crepidatum Amegh. are even reduced in the known species of horse. The superior molars have not assumed the pattern of the genus Equus, but resemble rather those of Macrauchenia, and could have been easily derived from those of Diadiaphorus.
Here we have a serial reduction of the lateral digits and their connections with the leg, and increase in the proportions of the middle digit and corresponding increases in the proximal connections, exactly similar to that which took place in the horse line, in a different order of Mammalia.”
The publishers have done their work well, and are especially to be commended for baving made the book of a convenient size to be carried in the pocket or satchel.
The Child and Childhood in Folk-Thought.—(The Child in Primitive Culture); by A. F. Chamberlain ; New York, Macmillan & Co., and London, 1896. Pp. x and 464 ; with bibliography and three indexes; price $3.
Dr. Chamberlain's work is not, as its chief title might lead one to suppose, a mere collection of folk-lore about the child. It is rather an attempt by this means to study the position of the child in primitive society. The author has brought together a great mass of material from every band, and arranged it systematically under appropriate headings; as a result we find every phase and aspect of childhood represented in his book.
The opening chapters, on the Lore of Motherhood and Fatherhood, have in some places only a remote bearing upon the main topic, but they may be regarded in the light of a general introduction. Following these are a number of chapters which aim to show the attitude of society toward the child; folk-lore on the soul of the child, legends connecting children with animals or plants, stock answers of the adult to the child's questions, superstitions concerning children, etc., together with stories of education and training among uncultured races. A large part of the work deals with the influence of the child upon society -the effect of child-language in modifying adult language; the child's position in many tribes as oracle, judge, physician, or priest, etc. The final chapters are a selection of popular proverbs and sayings bearing upon childhood, from the literature of various races, cultured as well as
uncultured. The bibliography at the end is thorough, if not exhaustive; it consists of over 550 titles, covering the entire field.
The author claims no originality of investigation ; but he has culled his material from a host of authorities, and his selections are well made. He has no conclusions to draw; he simply presents the material as data, with a view to a complete survey of the subject. The chief criticism that can be made upon his method is that it frequently leads to a curious intermingling of fables and traditions with actual race customs. Thus in the chapter on the Children's Food is described (p. 150) the practice which holds among several tribes of placing food on the grave of a dead child, to refresh its soul on the way to the spirit-land, and almost immediately after follows the legend of how the infant Hercules obtained immortality. The book is exceedingly interesting ; it treats its subject as thoroughly as the breadth of the task together with the limits of the volume permit; and it is wonderfully conducive to further reading.-H. C. WARREN,
Stockham on the Ethics of Marriage. This book is written with the view of securing an excellent object, the increase of the happiness of marriage. As the authoress is an M. D., and as she treats the subject at the outset with a seeming respect for scientific truth, we anticipated something valuable from her point of view. But we are compelled to say that the grains of truth are overlaid with such a quantity of error, rhapsody and sheer silliness, that we can only recommend the book as a study in feminine psychology. That there is one element of common sense running through it we are glad to admit. The authoress sees nothing degrading or indecent in the sexual relation. For this we must praise her; but it was surely not necessary for her to apologize for her good sense, by pages on pages of religious rhapsody. The gist of her method of promoting marital happiness is that sexual intimacy may take place without completing the act. This proposition is as old as the rational faculty of man; but, as rationality is usually less directed to sexual subjects than to any other, it is quite possible that her advice on this point may do some good. There are some amusing passages. Fearing to appear to fall into the Charybdis of“ hedonism” she runs high and dry on Scylla, as follows: “Before and during the time some devotional exercises may be participated in, or there may be a formation of consecration of an uplifting character in which both unite!”
+ Karezza ;
Ethics of Marriage, by Alice B. Stockham, M. D., Chicago. A. B. Stockham & Co.
The authoress labors under several physiological errors, which should be pointed out. She thinks in common with the ignorant classes gen. erally, that the orgasm is concerned in impregnation, which is well known not to be the case. She also asserts that the secretion of the testis is produced at the time it is needed for use, an idea promulgated several years ago in a silly book called Diana. This is also untrue; its elaboration requires some days, and when the gland is full the secretion makes its presence known and demands expulsion. The present book should have stated also, that the practice she recommends, which she calls “Karezza,” is a most potent stimulant of the secretion in question, and does in some men produce enlargement of the prostate gland and orchitis, so that every man must be in this matter his own doctor. But one will not find logic in this book. In view of what precedes one wonders where the authoress got her degree of M. D., and who is responsible for her education. We must, however, once more commend the spirit of the book, and hope that she will be instrumental in teaching some men and women ordinary temperance. But it must be borne in mind that medical writers chiefly deal with pathological conditions, and that the persons she writes about are mostly abnormal through excess or deficiency.
ANDREW, WM.-Gravitation and What it is. No Ice Age. Dodgeville, 1895. From the author.
ANDREWS, C. W.–The Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles of Muraenosaurus plicatus. Extr. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. S. 6, Vol. XVI, 1895. From the author.
ASHLEY, G. H.-The Neocene of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Extr. Leland Stanford Jr. Univ. Pub. Geol. & Paleon., No. 1, 1895. From the Univ.
Baker, F. C.-A Naturalist in Mexico, being a visit to Cuba, Northern Yucatan and Mexico. Chicago, 1895. From the Chicago Academy of Sciences.
Biological Lectures delivered at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Wood's Holl, 1893. Boston, 1894, Ginn & Co. From Prof. C. O. Whitman.
BOULENGER, G. A.-Addition to the Fauna of India (Tarbophis rhinopoma Blanf). Read before Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., Jan. 28, 1895.
-Rettili e Batraci. Esplorazione del Giuba e dei suoi Amuenti compiuta del Cap. v. Bottego durante gli anni, 1892–93. Extr. Ann. Mus. Civ. Storia Nat. di Genova. S. 2, Vol. XV, 1895. From the author.
BRINTON, D. G.-Report upon the Collections exhibited at the Columbian Historical Exposition. Extr. Rept. Madrid Com., 1892. Washington, 1895.
-Aims of Anthropology. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Vol. XLIV, 1895. From the author.
Check-List of North American Birds prepared by a Committee of the American Ornith. Union. 2d Ed. New York, 1895.
Cook, O. F.-Notes on Myriapoda from Loanda, Africa, collected by Mr. Heli Chatelaine, including a Description of a new Genus and Species. Extr. Proceeds. U. S. Natl. Mus., Vol. XVI, 1893. From the author.
Cook, O. F. AND A. C. Cook.—A Monograph of Scytonotus. Extr. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., VIII, 1895. From the authors.
Cox, PH.-History and Present State of the Ichthyology of New Brunswick, with a Catalogue of its fresh water and Marine Fishes. St. John, N. B., 1895. From the author.
CULIN, S.-Korean Games, with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan. Philadelphia, 1895. From the author.
DAVENPORT, C. B.-A Preliminary Catalogue of the Processes concerned in Ontogeny. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll., Vol. XXVII, 1895. From the author.
Dawson, G. M.-Glacial Deposits of Southwestern Alberta in the Vicinity of the Rocky Mts. Extr. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 7, 1895. From the Soc.
DEAN, B.-Fishes, Living and Fossil. New York and London, 1895. millan and Co. From the author.
DEWOLETZKY, R.–Neuere forschungen über das Gebiss der Saüger. Aus Jahresb. der k. k. Staats-Obergymnsiums in Czernowitz f. das Schuljahr, 1894-95. From the author. DUMBLE, E T.-The Soils of Texas. Extr. Trans. Texas Acad. Sci., 1895.
- Notes on the Texas Tertiaries, 1. c. From the author. EIMER, G. H. T.-Eine Systematische Darstellung der Abänderungen Abarten und Arten der Schwalbenschwanz-ähnlischen Formen der Gattung Papilio. Die Artbildung und Verwandtschaft bei den Schmetterlingen, II, Theil. Jena, 1895. From the author.
Flores, E.-Sulle Ossa di Mammifera in essi Rinvenute. Estr. Bol. Soc. Geol. Ital , Vol. XIV, Roma, 1895. From the author.
FURBRINGER, M.-Ueber die mit dem Visceralskelet verbundenen spinalen Muslseln bei Selachiern. Abdruck Jenaisch. Zeitsschr f. Naturw., Bd. XXX, N. F., XXIII. From the author.
GADOW, H. AND E. C. ABBOTT.-On the Evolution of the Vertebral Column of Fishes. Extr. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 1895. From Prof. Gadow.
GUNTHER, A.-Report on a Collection of Reptiles and Batrachians sent by Emin Pasha from Monbuttu, Upper Congo. Extr. Proceeds. Zool. Soc. London, 1888.
-Report on a Collection of Reptiles and Batracbians transmitted by Mr. H. H. Johnston, C. B., from Nyassaland. Extr. Proceeds. Zool. Soc. London, 1892.
Notes on Reptiles and Frogs from Dominica, West Indies. Extr. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1888.
Notice of Reptiles and Batrachians collected in the eastern half of Tropical Africa. Extr. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1895.
HEADLEY, F. W.-The Structure and Life of Birds. London and New York, 1895, Macmillan and Co. From the Pub.
HOWARD, L. 0.-Revision of the Aphelininae of North America. Tech. series No. 1, U. S. Dept. Agric , Div. Entomol. Washington, 1895. From the Dept.
HUTCHINSON, WM.-Handbook of Grasses. New York, 1895, Macmillan and Co. From John Wanamaker's
JOHNSTON-Lavis, H. J.—Notizie sui depositi delgi Antichi Laghi di Pianure (Napoli) e di Melfi (Basilicata). Estr. Bol. Soc. Geol. Ital., Vol. XIV, Roma, 1895. From the author.
Kurtz, F.-On the Existence of the Lower Gonawanas in Argentina. Trans. by John Gillespie. Extr. Records Geol. Surv. India, Vol. XXVIII, 1895. From the author.
Landois, H.—Die Riesenammoniten von Seppenrade. Anis, XXIII, Jahresb. Westfälischen Prov. Vereins für Wissenschaft und Kunst Münster, 1895. From the author.
LECHE, W.-Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des Zahvsystems des Säugethiere, Erster Theil. Ontogenie. Stuttgart, 1895. From the author.
LEVERETT, F.-On the Correlation of New York Moraines with Raised Beaches on Lake Erie. Extr. Amer. Journ. Sci., Vol. L, 1895.
-Soils of Illinois. Extr. Final Rept. Ill. Board World's Fair Commission, 1895.
-Preglacial Valleys of the Mississippi and Tributaries. Extr. Journ. Geol., Vol. III, 1895. From the author.
LEWIS, W. D.—The Adaptation of Society to its Environment. Pub. of the Amer. Acad. Political and Social Science, No. 109. No date given. From the author.
MATTHEW, W. D.-The Effusive and Dyke Rocks near St. John, N. B.
McGee, W. G.–The Beginning of Agriculture. Extr. Amer. Anthropol., 1895. From the author.
MEYRICK, E.-A Handbook of British Lepidoptera. London and New York, 1895, Macmillan and Co. From the Publisher.
MOLLIER, DR. S.-Das Cheiropterygium. Weisuaden, 1895. From the author.
Pilsbry, H. A.-Catalogue of the Marine Mollusks of Japan, with Descriptions of New Species and Notes on Others collected by F. Stearns. Detroit, 1895. From the author.
Report of the Biological Dept. of the New Jersey Agric. Coll. Exper. Station for the year 1893.
Report of the Commission, U. S. Commission Fish and Fisheries for the year ending June 30, 1893. From the Dept.
SMITH, T.-Additional Investigations concerning Infectious Swine Diseases. Bull. No. 6, 1894, U. S. Dept. Agric. From the Dept.
VAN DENBERGH, J.-A Review of the Herpetology of Lower California. Pt. II. Batrachians. Extr. Proceeds. Cal. Acad. Sci. S. 5, Vol. V, 1895. From the author.
Walcott, C. D.-Sixteenth Annual Report of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey for 1894--95. Extr. Sixteenth Ann. Rept. Sury. From the U.S. Geol. Survey.