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intention to take part in the work of the Congress) tickets allowing them free first class transportation on all Russian railways before and after the Meeting of the Congress, including the excursions.”

Lord Lilford, the President of the British Ornithologists' Union, died June 17, 1896. At the time of his death he was engaged in a work on the Birds of the British Islands which was nearly completed. He was a contributor to Ibis, The Zoologist and the Proceedings of the London Zoological Society. His interest in natural history led to his keeping an extensive collection of living animals at his country seat in Northhamptonshire.

Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, Las Cruces, New Mexico, will be glad to furnish information concerning the biological station he proposes to establish in New Mexico. If a sufficient number of students are enrolled, a beginning will be made this summer. For the study of nsect life New Mexico presents an unusual combination of advantages.

The prizes awarded by the London Geological Society have been distributed as follows: The Wallaston Medal to Dr. Edward Suess, Ph. D. Prof. of Geology in the University of Vienna; Wollaston Dopation Fund to Alfred Harker, M. A. of the Geological Survey of Scotland ; The Murchison Medal to T. Mellard Reade, Esq.; Murchison Geological Fund to Philip Lake, Esq.; The Lyell Medal to Arthur Smith Woodward, Esq.; Lyell Geological Fund to Dr. Wm. Fraser Hume, Demonstrator of Geology in the Royal College of Science and Charles W. Andrews, Esq.; The Barlow-Jameson Fund to Joseph Wright, Esq. and Mr. John Storrie of Cardiff. (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, 1896.

Messrs. Hatcher and Peterson have gone to Patagonia to collect fossil vertebrata in the Cenozoic beds of Patagonia for Princeton University.

Macmillann & Co. have made arrangements for the issue in New York and London of a “ Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology " under the editorial supervision of Professor Baldwin of Princeton University.

The following assignments of topics with the names of the authorities who will contribute original matter may be already announced :

General Philosophy and Metaphysics.--Prof. Andrew Seth, Edinburgh University; Prof. John Dewey, Chicago University. History of Philosophy.--Prof. Josiah Royce, Harvard University. Logic.Prof. R. Adamson, Glasgow University. Ethics.-Prof. W. R. Sorley, Aber- . deen University. Psychology.-Prof. J. Mck. Cattell, Columbia University ; G. F. Stout, W. E. Johnson, Cambridge University; Prof. E. B. Titchener, Cornell University ; The Editor, Princeton University Mental Pathology and Anthropology.-Prof. Joseph Jastrow, Wisconsin University. Biology.-Prof. Lloyd Morgan, University College, Bristol. Bibliography.Dr. Benjamin Rann, Harvard University. THE

With the publication of No. II, Vol. II, of its bulletins, the Chicago Academy of Sciences enters upon a new era of activity. Its publications will be issued at regular intervals. The Academy property is now housed in a fire proof building of the best architectural construction, and no further fears of fire are entertained.

Dr. Joseph F. James begs to inform his friends and correspondents that he has removed from Washington, D. C., and that after May 10, .1896, his address will be Hingham, Mass.

I desire to secure good sets, cleaned or uncleaned, numbering fifteen or more specimens each, of your local representatives of Campeloma (Melantho of Authors), Lioplax aud Viripara. Where extra large sets can be sent they will be of especial value since the present object is monographic. Exchanges are offered in southern Unionidee and Strepomatide. The rarer forms of the last named groups are also desired. Cincinnati,

Very respectfully 1815 Fairfax Ave.

R. ELLSWORTH CALL.

AMERICAN NATURALIST

Vol. XXX.

September, 1896.

357

PROF. BALDWIN'S "NEW FACTOR IN EVOLUTION.1

BY HERBERT NICHOLS.

That the ipendulum of opinion swung too violently against the conception that mind is an active factor in Evolution I count the major misfortune of the modern epoch of Science. That there is now a return of interest I esteem to be the most important outlook of our day. That this return of interest centres in Psychology is inevitable. If now this new movement should become abortive through any false lead of Psychology the result would be deplorable.

It is with anxiety, therefore, that I read the numerous writings of Prof. J. Mark Baldwin upon the rôle played by mind in Evolution (see above Reprint for complete list). The prolific earnestness of this author, together with his conspicuous position as professor at Princeton and Alternate Editor of The Psycological Review, give unusual prominence to his views. Yet these views, as I believe, are precisely of the kind which we have most to dread. It is in this belief that I am prompted to the analysis of them which I here propose. And as Prof. Baldwin has no more enthusiastic admirer of his sincerity and i Reprinted from THE AMERICAN Naturalist, June and July, 1896.

zeal, so I beg him to permit me to point out the more freely the objections to his main assumption.

In Professor Baldwin's latest paper, above referred to, he has “gathered into one sketch "an outline of his theory. In this pamphlet, as in all else that he has written on this subject, we are presented with a vast pyramid standing on its apex.

We are told how he conceives Evolution to work under his assumption, and gradually his story narrows toward an explicit statement of what this assumption is. Unfortunately, however, the vast superstructure closes in to a cloud of mist, and does so, alas, not only before he has made clear in exact detail what his assumption is, but even before making understood how the things he vaguely suggests could ever clearly be conceived to be possible.

The gist of Mr. Baldwin's notion is that Pleasure-Pain is a psychic“ factor” that crucially determines Evolution. Pleasure results from beneficial stimulus. It causes, in turn,“excessive" neural discharge. Neural discharge causes "expansion." Expansion brings the creature into continued subservience to the beneficial stimulus. Excessive neural discharge makes the paths of actual discharge more pervious to the continued stimulus and to subsequent discharges from the same source. Thus a" Circular Reaction” becomes fixed which, because it is beneficial, conduces to the preservation at once of the peculiar habit and variation in the organisms so developed, and also of the creature in which it is developed. The antithesis of all this happens with pain.

Now for the difficulties; and to bring them out let us imagine an unorganized creature before us-say an ameba. Our problem is to find how it becomes organized. Let us imagine it attacked by any given stimulus at some point of its periphery.

Mr. Baldwin tell us that if this stimulus is beneficial it will give pleasure, and the pleasure will cause "excess movements.” Mr. Baldwin does not pretend that these are yet organized movements. To do so would be to beg his whole question. Yet he claims that this unorganized movement would complete his “ Circular Reaction” with the beneficial stimulus and perpetuate the beneficient work. But how can we conceive

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