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Juniperus communis alpina, the Mountain Juniper, is common everywhere from 7000 feet altitude to timber-line (11,500), as a low, spreading and almost trailing shrub.
Juniperus occidentalis monosperma, the Brown Cedar, or more commonly called here by the erroneous name of White Cedar, is common in the Garden of the Gods.
Juniperus virginiana, the Red Cedar, is to be found in the Garden of the Gods and generally at low altitudes. Some of the trees are entirely clothed with the short, blunt leaves, giving them a smoothness not generally seen in this species. Such trees are more glaucous, and are more round topped than the ordinary kind in which many of the leaves are sharp-pointed.
Abies concolor, the White Fir, occurs abundantly from about 7000 feet to 8000 or 10,000 feet above sea level. Its beautiful layered foliage and erect cylindrical cones make it an object of interest to every traveller.
Pseudotsuga taxifolia (P. douglasii of Coulter's Manual), the Douglas Fir, is the most common of the single-leafed conifers, occurring everywhere from the foot of the mountains to timber-line. It is distinguished at once by its elliptical cone, with trifid bracts between the scales.
Picea engelmanni, Engelmann's Spruce, and P. pungens, the Sharpleaved Spruce, are common from 7000 or 7500 feet up to 9000 or 10,000 feet altitude on the eastern slopes of Pike's Peak.
Pinus flexilis, the Rocky Mountain White Pine, occurs from Cheyenne Mountain to Pike's Peak, from 7000 feet to timber-line, where it is very common. It may readily be distinguished by its leaves, which are in fires.
Pinus balfouriana aristata. This tree resembles the preceding, and apparently is often confused with it under the name of “ White Pine” or “Foxtail Pine.” It grows at high altitudes (10,000 feet) up to timber-line, and in this region is a small, or at most, a moderate-sized tree. Its short leaves (about one inch) which are in fives, and prickly cones distinguish it from all other species.
Pinus edulis, the Nut Pine, is a low, spreading tree, often not more tban ten or twelve feet in height. It may be distinguished by its short leaves and small cones, the latter containing a few large edible seeds. It is common in the Garden of the Gods and on the foot-bills a few hundred feet higher.
Pinus ponderosa scopulorum, the Rocky Mountain Yellow Pine, or more commonly called the Bull Pine, is the most abundant conifer of the region. It grows at all elevations, from the foot of the mountains and foot-hills to timber-line. Its leaves are long, and occur in twos and less commonly in threes.- CHARLES E. BESSEY.
Ferns Near Colorado Springs, Colorado.--So many thousands of travellers visit the beautiful city of Colorado Springs every year that the following list of the ferns to be found within easy walking distance from the end of the car lines may be of interest to botanical readers.
Notholæna fendleri Kunze.
A few notes on the above list may be of interest. There is a good deal of individuality about the Colorado climate, and the same is true of its ferns and their habits. The Woodsia and the Pteris are almost the only ferns found on the open hillsides, and these but sparingly; the others seek the protection of the mountain cañons. Most of them prefer cañons opening toward the north. During three summers spent in Colorado I do not remember finding a single fern in any canon opening toward the south.
In Notholaena fendleri we are told that the pinnules are oval in mature specimens. In most young fronds I have found them deltoid or spatulate, and in some beautiful specimens this form is retained. In such ferns the stipes are lighter in color and weight, the zigzag course of the rachis is less pronounced, the pinnæ are more distant, and the pinnules less numerous, giving the specimens a much lighter and more graceful appearance. The departure from the normal form is worth noting, but not sufficient to constitute a variety.
Cheilanthes tomentosa, according to the books, is from eight to fifteen inches in length at maturity. Most specimens live up to the rule, but not a few ignore the books, and mature their fruit before they are eight inches tall; indeed, some very saucy specimens refuse to grow beyond a single inch, and scatter their spores to the winds in spite of their insignificant size.
The two ferns named above are to be found in most of the shady cañons near Colorado Springs, but Asplenium trichomanes I have found only in one place in South Cheyenne canon, while A. septentrionale has not been seen outside of the beautiful gulch in the Ute Pass, from which the city of Manitou obtains its water supply. All the lower canons of the Ute Pass would be rich fields for the botanist if the vandal tourist could be kept out of them; as it is, there are still a few treasures left on the high rocks and in out of the way corners. Here Phegopteris dryopteris flourishes and Cystopteris runs riot.
The two Botrychiums were found in North Cheyenne Cañon, B. vir. ginianum four, and A. matricariaefolium eight miles from the mouth of the cañon. Naturally, such fleshy ferns are seldom found in the dry atmosphere of Colorado, yet, in the one station where found, B. matricariaefolium was quite plentiful, and varied in form from a simplex-like plant of two inches to beautiful specimes nine inches high.
Of Cystopteris fragilis Eaton wisely wrote “very variable.” The same might well be written of the whole genus so far as Colorado is concerned. It is the most abundant fern on Cheyenne Mountain, and there flourishes with little regard for the specific fences within which the books expect it to grow. I have not included C. montana (Lam.) Bernh. in the above list, because specimens found are hardly as broad as the typical form that species demands, while too broad to be classed as C. fragilis. The C. bulbifera found is without bulbs, but otherwise conforms to the books. The “winged” or “wingless rachis” of the books is not an unfailing test in differentiating the Colorado species of this genus, a microscopical examination of the indusium being necessary.
But if the Colorado Cystopteris is a very variable” what shall I say of Woodsia? I have entered W. scopulina, W. obtusa and W. oregona on the above list, because from the large amount of material on hand it is easy to select specimens which exactly conform to the species type in the books. I believe also that some specimens answering to W. mericana might be selected, while a few would almost pass for W. alpina. But when this has been done what are we to call the still larger number of specimens, which are not exactly W. Scopulina, nor W. oregona, nor W. mexicana, nor W. obtusa? Shall we say they are Woodsia, simply Woodsia, and nothing more? It seems to me that in this genus there is work waiting to be done of the same wise sort that Mr. George E. Davenport did some years ago in the genus Botrychium.—ALFORD A. BUTLER.
Lygosoma (Liolepisma) Laterale in New Jersey-As this species (the Oligosoma laterale of Girard and authors) is mainly characteristic of the South Atlantic and Gulf States—the Austroriparian Region in brief—its occurrence in New Jersey under such circumstances as to lead one to believe it a regular member of the fauna is of interest as an additional fact showing the strong southern stamp which the fauna and flora of that interesting region bear.
Yarrow's check-list, and most published lists since, record Salem, N. C., as the most northerly locality in the eastern United States, while southern Illinois and Indiana mark the northernmost limit of distribution in the Mississippi valley. Prof. Cope, however, informs me of a record for Maryland.
The New Jersey record is based upon a single specimen taken near Batsto, in Burlington County, on May 29th, of the present year. It was found on the ground concealed beneath a wood pile on a deserted farm, and glided away so quietly, clinging so closely to the ground and so skillfully seeking concealment beneath every small plant and chip, that it almost escaped unperceived.
It remained an interesting captive for about one month, but finally succumbed to its appetite in attempting to dispose of a large Polydes. mus entire. During its captivity it partook of several small specimens of Julus, Polydesmus, and pill-bugs (Armadillo), besides small beetles and flies, a larval grasshopper and an earth.worm (Allurus)—food very different from that selected by Sceloporus undulatus under similar circumstances.
It was very fond of water, and sipped it up eagerly when poured on the bottom of its jar; the snout was buried beneath the surface, and the slender tongue travelled out and in rapidly until the water had sunk beneath the surface of the sand.
A similar movement of the tongue took place, as in the snakes, when food was detected, or under other excitement. The body movements were exceedingly graceful, but slow, as compared with Eumeces or Sceloporus.
During the night of June 14th two eggs were laid, and were found the next morning on the surface of the sand, without any covering whatever. Sceloporus has a similar habit in captivity, my experience being that the eggs are only partially or not at all covered. These eggs of
Lygosoma have the usual tough parchment-like shell, with calcareous surface deposits, as in many Reptilia. They have a structure essentially similar to that described for the egg-shells of Pityophis. They are more slender in form than those of Sceloporus, and measure 9.5 x
The contained embryos were somewhat younger than those of Sceloporus usually are at the time of disposition—that is, the allantoic outgrowth was but just visible. The fertility of this specimen renders it probable that the species is a regular habitue of the neighborhood, but its small size, and retiring and nocturnal habits, render it very likely to escape notice.-J. PERCY MOORE.
On a New Glauconia from New Mexico.-Nasal entirely divided, rostral rounded behind, reaching the line of the eyes. Two labials anterior to the ocular, the posterior reaching the eye. Frontal and supraorbital scales smaller than those posterior to them. The eye is close to the nasal, and distant from the supraocular. Postocular reaching last labial, and bounded posteriorly by three sublingual scales. Inferior labials five, the second twice as large as any of the others; the fourth barely reaching the commissure of the mouth, and the fifth very small. Scales in fourteen rows. A large preanal plate. Tail flattened below, entering total length about fifteen times.
Color very light brown above, whitish below. Total length 235 mm.; tail 12 mm.
I found the specimen above described in a road at the silver mines at Lake Valley, southern New Mexico.
The appearance of this species is so similar to that of the G. dulcis that I originally identified it with the latter. It is, however, very different, especially in the number of labials, and the scales which adjoin the postocular posteriorly. There is no plate comparable to the socalled parietal of G. dulcis. I propose that it be called G. dissecta.E. D. COPE
On the Habits of Keen's Deer Mouse, Peromyscus keeni (Rhoads). The following interesting notes were forwarded me by the Rev. J. H. Keen, a missionary on the Queen Charlotte Islands. The Deer Mouse referred to was originally described in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences for 1894, from specimens procured by Mr. Keen, and forwarded to Philadelphia. The remarks on the use of the cheek pouches for the conveyance of food are of particular value. It has been known for many years that several species of this genus possessed cheek pouches; but I can remember no personal observation of their use by the living animal, having been published.—SAMUEL N. RHOADS.
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., July 16, 1896.