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Prof. Osbotn offered the following resolution on the death of Professor G. Brown Goode, after paying a tribute to his memory :

Resolved, That the members of the Biological Section of the New York Academy of Sciences desire to express their deep sense of loss in the death of Professor G. Brown Goode, of the U.S. National Museum. In common with all naturalists in this country, we have admired his intelligence and highly successful administration of the National Musuem as well as his prompt and ready response to the requests and needs of similar institutions throughout the country.

In face of the arduous and exacting duties of his directorship he has held a leading position among American zoologists, and we are indebted to him for a series of invaluable investigations, especially upon the fishes.

Those of us who had the good fortune to know Professor Goode personally, recall his singular charm of character, his genial interest in the work of others, his true scientific spirit. We have thus lost one of our ablest fellow-workers and one of the truest and best of men. The resolution was adopted unanimously by a rising vote.

CHARLES L. BRISTOL, Secretary.

The Academy of Science of St. Louis.-At a meeting of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, held October 19, 1896, Mr. Trelease exhibited living flowers of Catasetum gnomus, demonstrating the extreme irritability of their tentacles and the precision with which the pollinia become attached to any object touching either tentacle. Mr. J. B. S. Norton presented a list of the Ustilagineæ of Kansas, together with the result of germinations of about one-half of the entire number. Three persons were elected to active membership.

WILLIAM TRELEASE, Recording Secretary.

The Biological Society of Washington.-The following communications were made : C. Hart Merriam, "A New Fir from Arizona ;" Frederick V. Coville, “Notice of Britton and Brown's Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada;” Erwin F. Smith, “A Bacterial Disease of Potatoes, Tomatoes and Eggplants ;” B. E. Fernow, "Timber line: Its Aspects and Causes."

FREDERICK A. LUCAS, Secretary.

SCIENTIFIC NEWS.

A course of eight free lectures mainly upon Science and Travel bas been arranged by the Field Columbian Museum for Saturday afternoons in October and November at the usual hour, 3 o'clock. Most of these lectures will be illustrated by steropticon views. Subjects, Dates and Lecturers: Oct. 3.—“Archeological Explorations in Peru," Dr. G. A. Dorsey, Assistant Curator of Anthropology, Field Columbian Museum. Oct. 10.—“A Trip to Popocatapetal and Ixtaccihuatl,” Prof. 0. C. Farrington, Curator of Geology, Field Columbian Museum, Oct. 17. -“San Domingo,” Mr. G. K. Cherrie, Assistant Curator of Ornithol. ogy, Field Columbian Museum. Oct. 24.—“ Egypt and what we know of her,” Dr. J. H. Breasted, Instruction in Egyptology and Semitics, University of Chicago. Oct. 31.—“The Petroleum Industry," Dr. D. T. Day, Chief of Division of Mineral Resources, U. S. Geological Survey. Nov. 7.—“Alaska and its Inhabitants," Prof. George L. Collie, Beloit College, Wis. Nov. 14.-" The Economic Geology of the Sea," Mr. H. W. Nichols, Curator of Economic Geology, Field Columbian Museum. Nov. 21.-" The Physical Geography of New England,” Dr. H. B. Kümmel, Assistant Professor of Physiography, Lewis Institute.

Dr. Ludwig Reh, formerly assistant in the Museum at Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been appointed assistant in the Concilium Bibliographicum at Zürich. With this addition to the working force the Bureau will soon bring its work up to date; and its cards will be sent out more frequently than before.

The annual meeting of the American Psychological Association will be held at Boston, December 29th and 30th, 1896, that place and time having been chosen by the American Society of Naturalists and ratified by the President of the Association.

The Executive Committee of the American Society of Naturalists have decided to hold the next meeting of the Naturalists at Boston and have chosen the Inheritance of Acquired Characters for the theme of discussion.

The next session of the Association of American Anatomists shall be held in Washington City, May, 1897, in conjunction with the other societies of the Congress of American Physicians and Surgeons.

J. H. Maiden has been appointed government botanist and director of the botanical gardens of New South Wales, succeeding Charles Moore who held the position for nearly fifty years.

Mr. F. F. Blackman has been appointed assistant in botany in the University of Cambridge, and Dr. E. Albrecht assistant in the Anatomical Institute of the University of Munich.

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia has conferred the Hayden Memorial Geological Award for 1896 on Prof. Giovanni Capellini of the University of Bologna.

Prof. A. N. Kuznetzow has been advanced to the position of ordinary professor of botany and director of the botanical gardens in the University of Dorpat.

The Ninth Annual Winter Meeting of the Geological Society of America will be held in the city of Washington, D. C., on December 29, 30, 31, 1896.

Dr. H. Hanns, Th. Loesener and P. Gräbner have been called as scientific assistants to the botanical museum of the University of Berlin.

Dr. L. Kathariner, of Würzburg, goes to the professorship of zoology and comparative anatomy in the University of Freiburg, Switzerland.

Dr. V. Schiffner has been advanced to the position of professor extraordinarius of botany in the German University of Prague.

Dr. A. Möller, of Idstein, well-known for his studies of South American botany has gone to the Forestry Academy at Eberswald.

The Ministry of Education has conferred the title of professor upon the botanist Dr. Kienitz-Gerloff of Weilberg on the Lahn.

Dr. B. Hofer, of the University of Munich, has been appointed professor of fish culture in the Veterinary school at Munich.

Dr. K. Busz, formerly of Marburg, has gone to the University of Munich as extraordinary professor of mineralogy.

Dr. F. W. K. Müller has been advanced to the position of directors assistant in the Museum of Ethnology in Berlin.

Dr. H. F. Reid, of Johns Hopkins University has been advanced to the position of assistant professor of geophysics.

Prof. K. von Kupffer, of Munich, has been elected corresponding member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

Dr. V. A. H. Horsley, professor of histology in University College, London, has been made professor emeritus.

Dr. Standenmaier, of Munich, goes to the Lyceum at Friesing as Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy.

Dr. J. Lerch, well-known for his studies of the Swiss flora, died at Couret, March 13th of this year.

Canon A. M. Norman is hereafter to be addressed at Houghton-leSpring, Co. Durham, England.

Dr. F. Kohl has been advanced to the position of ordinary professor in the University of Marburg.

Dr. A. Hosius, professor of mineralogy in the Academy of Münster, died May 11, aged 71 years.

Dr. R. Zuber is now professor extraordinarius of geology in the University of Lemberg.

Dr. A. Zimmermann, of Berlin, goes to the Botanical Gardens at Buitenzorg, Java.

Dr. H. Henking is now professor of zoology in the University of Göttingen.

Prof. W. Tief, of Villach, Carniola, a student of the Diptera, is dead.

THE

AMERICAN NATURALIST

Vol. XXX.

December, 1896.

360

THE BIOLOGIC ORIGIN OF MENTAL VARIETY,

OR
HOW WE CAME TO HAVE MINDS.

BY HERBERT NICHOLS.

It is not an infrequent combination that the most familiar things neither excite curiosity nor are understood. Our subtitle suggests an instance of this kind. The naive man commonly takes for granted that he sees the landscape, and hears the orchestra, for no further reason than that they are there before him to be seen and heard. A man a degree wiser gets so far as to recognize that eyes, ears and a brain are necessary. If a biologist be asked, to-day, how we came by this apparatus, he will answer, “through evolution.” This is the maximum reach of Science at present. Yet it is nearly as naive to conceive that we have minds, such as ours, merely because we have eyes, ears and a brain, as for one to imagine that he sees just because he has his eyes open.

This becomes apparent if we consider the widely accepted doctrine that all the sensory currents running through the nerves to the brain are of the same general sort, as much so as those in electric wires

* This paper, under the title “Psychology and Biology” and now somewhat altered from the original, was one of six lectures on "Modern Psychology and its Bearings," delivered, by the author, at Johns Hopkins University in March,

1896.

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