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PAETISED TO THE SECOND EDITION OF SEVERAL OF TBE

#LYRICAL BALLADS.

for example, in the age of Catullus, Terence, and LuOBSERVATIONS

cretius, and that of Statius or Claudian; and in our

own country, in the age of Shakspeare and Beaumont FOREGOING POEMS, PUBLISHED UNDER THE TITLE OF

and Fletcher, and that of Donne and Cowley, or Dryden, or Pope. I will not take upon me to determine the exact import of the promise which by the act of writing

in verse an Author, in the present day, makes to his SEVERAL of these poems have already been submitted to Reader; but I am certain it will appear to many persons general perusa). They were published, as an experiment, that I have not fulfilled the terms of an engagement sluch, I hoped, might be of some use to ascertain, how thus voluntarily contracted. They who have been acfar, by fitting to metrical arrangement a selection of customed to the gaudiness and inane phraseology of ibe real language of men in a state of vivid sensation, many modern writers, if they persist in reading this that sort of pleasure and that quantity of pleasure may book to its conclusion, will, no doubt, frequently have be imparted, which a Poet may rationally endeavour to to struggle with feelings of strangeness and awkward. impart.

Dess: they will look round for poetry, and will be inI had formed no very inaccurate estimate of the pro- duced to inquire by what species of courtesy these bable effect of those Poems: 1 Nattered myself that they attempts can be permitted to assume that title. I hope who should be pleased with them would read them with therefore the Reader will not censure me, if I attempt more than common pleasure : and, on the other hand, to state what I have proposed to myself 10 perform; I was well aware, that by those who should dislike and also (as far as the limits of this notice will permit) them, they would be read with more than common to explain some of the chief reasons which have deterdislike. The result has differed from my expectation mined me in the choice of my purpose : that at least he in this only, that I have pleased a greater number than may be spared any unpleasant feeling of disappointment, Tvedtured to hope I should please.

and that I myself may be protected from the most dis

honourable accusation which can be brought against an Several of my Friends are anxious for the success of Author, namely, that of an indolence which prevents these Poems from a belief, that, if the views with which him from endeavouring to ascertain what is his duty, they were composed were indeed realised, a class of or, when his duty is ascertained, prevents him from perPoetry would be produced, well adapted to interest forming it. mankind permanently, and not unimportant in the The principal object, then, which I proposed to mymultiplicity, and in the quality of its moral relations : self in these Poems was to chuse incidents and situaand on this account they have advised me to add a tions from common life, and to relate or describe them, systematic defence of the theory upon which the poems throughout, as far as was possible, in a selection of were written. But I was unwilling to undertake the language really used by men, and, at the same time, 10 task, because I knew that on this occasion the Reader throw over them a certain colouring of imagination, vould look coldly upon my arguments, since I might be whereby ordinary things should be presented to the suspecies of having been principally influenced by the mind in an unusual way; and, further, and above all, selfish and foolish hope of reasoning him into an ap- to make these incidents and situations interesting by probation of these particular Poems: and I was still tracing in them, truly though not ostentatiously, the more unwilling to undertake the task, because, ade-primary laws of our nature : chiefly, as far as regards quately to display my opinions, and fully to enforce my the manner in which we associate ideas in a state of arguments, would require a space wholly dispropor- excitement. Low and rustic life was generally chosen, donate to the extent of the work. For to treat the because, in that condition, the essential passions of the subject with the clearness and coberence of which I heart find a better soil in which they can attain their believe it susceptible, it would be necessary to give a maturity, are less under restraint, and speak a plainer full aecount of the present state of the public taste in and more emphatic language; because in that condition this country, and to determine how far this taste is of life our elementary feelings co-exist in a state of healthy or depraved; which, agnio, could not be de- greater simplicity, and, consequently, may be more termined, without pointing out, in what manner lan- accurately contemplated, and more forcibly communiguage and the human mind act and re-act on each cated ; because the manners of rural life germinate other, and without retracing the revolutions, not of from those elementary feelings; and from the necessary literature alone, but likewise of society itself. I have character of rural occupations, are more easily comtherefore altogether declined to enter regularly upon prehended, and are more durable; and, lastly, because this defence; vet I am sensible, that there would be in that condition the passions of men are incorporated some impropriely in abrupıly obtruding upon the with the beautiful and permanent forms of nature. The Public, without a few words of introduction, Poems so language, too, of these men is adopted (purified indeed materially different from those upon which general ap- from what appears to be its real defects, from all lasting probation is at present bestowed.

and rational causes of dislike or disgust) because such It is supposed, that by the act of writing in verse an men hourly communicate with the best objects from Author makes a formal engagement that he will gratify which the best part of language is originally derived ; certain knowo habits of association ; that he not only and because, from their rank in society and the samethus apprises the Reader that certain classes of ideas and ness and narrow circle of their intercourse, being less Ipressions will be found in his book, but that others under the influence of social vanity, they convey their will be carefully excluded. This exponent or symbol feelings and notions in simple and unelaborated exbeld forili by metrical language musi in different æras pressions. Accordingly, such a language, arising out of literature lave excited very different expectations : lof repeated experience and regular feelings, is a more

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permanent, and a far more philosophical language, Stanzas entitled WE ARE Sever, the perplexity and obthan that which is frequently substituted for it by Poets, scurity which in childhood attend our notion of death, who think that they are conferring honour upon them- or rather our utter inability to admit that notion; or selves and their art, in proportion as they separate by displaying the strength of fraternal, or, to speak themselves from the sympathies of men, and indulge in more philosophically, of moral attachment when early arbitrary and capricious habits of expression, in order associated with the great and beautiful objects of nato furnish food for fickle tastes, and fickle appetites, of ture, as in Tae BROTHERS; or, as in the Incident of their own creation."

Simon Lee, by placing my Reader in the way of receiv. I cannot, however, be insensible of the present outcry ing from ordinary moral sensations another and more against the triviality and meanness, both of though, salutary impression than we are accustomed to receive ! and language, which some of my contemporaries have from them. It has also been part of my general puroccasionally introduced into their metrical composi- pose to attempt to sketch characters under the influence tions; and I acknowledge that this defect, where it of less impassioned feelings, as in the Two Apail Morexists, is more dishonourable to the Writer's own cha- NINGS, The Fountain, THE OLD MAN TRAVELLING, TEE racter than false refinement or arbitrary innovation, Two Thieves, etc. characters of which the elements are though I should contend at the same time, that it is far simple, belonging rather to nature than to manners, Jess pernicious in the sum of its consequences. From such as exist now, and will probably always exist, and such verses the Poems in these volumes will be found which from their constitution may be distinctly and distinguished at least by one mark of difference, that profitably contemplated. I will not abuse the indat each of them has a worthy purpose. Not that I mean gence of my Reader by dwelling longer upon this to say, I always began to write with a distinct purpose subject; but it is proper that I should mentioa one formally conceivedl; but my habits of meditation have other circumstance which distinguishes these Poems so formed my feelings, as that my descriptions of such from the popular Poetry of the day; it is this, that the objects as strongly excite those feelings. will be found feeling therein developed gives importance to the action to carry along with them a purpose.

If in this opinion and situation, and not the action and situation to the I am mistaken, I can have little right to the name of a feeling. My meaning will be rendered perfectly intelPoet. For all good poetry is the spontaneous overflow ligible by referring my Reader to the Poems entitled of powerful feelings : and though this be true, Poems Poor Susan and the Childless Father, particularly to to which any value can be attached were never produced the last Stanza of the latter Poem. on any variety of subjects but by a man, who, being I will not suffer a sense of false modesty to prevent possessed of more than usual organic sensibility, had me from asserting, that I point my Reader's attention to also thought long and deeply. For our continued in this mark of distinction, far less for the sake of these fluxes of feeling are modified and directed by our particular Poems than from the general importance of thoughts, which are indeed the representatives of all the subject. The subject is indeed important! for our past feelings; and, as by contemplating the relation the human mind is capable of being excited witbout of these peneral representatives to each other, we the application of gross and violent stimulants; and he discover what is really important to men, so, by the must have a very faint perception of its beauty and repetition and continuance of this act, our feelings will dignity who does not know this, and who does not be connected with important subjects, till at length, if further know, that one being is elevated above another, we bc originally possessed of much sensibility, such in proportion as he possesses this capability. It has habits of mind will be produced, that, by obeying therefore appeared to me, that to endeavour to produce blindly and mechanically the impulses of those babits, or enlarge this capability is one of the best services io we shall describe objects, and utter sentiments, of such which, at any period, a Writer can be engaged; but this a nature, and in such connexion with each other, that service, excellent at all times, is especially so at the the understanding of the being to whom we address present day. For a multitude of causes, unknown to ourselves, if he be in a healthful state of association, former times, are now acting with a combined force to must necessarily he in some degrec enlightened, and blunt the discriminating powers of the mind, and uphis affections amcliorated.

fitting it for all voluntary exertion, to reduce it to a I have said that each of these poems has a purpose. state of almost savage torpor. The most effective of I have also informed my Reader what this purpose will these causes are the great national events which are be found principally to be : namely, to illustrate the daily taking place, and the increasing accumulation of manner in which our feelings and ideas are associated men in cities, where the uniformity of their occupain a state of excitement. But, speaking in language tions produces a craving for extraordinary incident, somewhat more appropriate, it is to follow the fluxes which the rapid communication of intelligence hourly i and refluxes of the mind when agitated by the great f:ratifies. To this tendency of life and manners the and simple affections of our nature. This object I have literature and theatrical exhibitions of the country have endeavoured in these short essays to attain by various conformed themselves. The invaluable works of our means; by tracing the maternal passion through many elder writers, I had almost said the works of Shakspeare of its more subtile windings, as in the poems of the and Milton, are driven into neglect by frantic novels, Joior Boy and the Mad MOTHER; by accompanying the sickly and stupid German Tragedies, and deluxes of idle last struggles of a human being, at the approach of and extravagant stories in verse. When I think upon death, cleaving, in solitude to life and society, as in the this degrading thirst after outrageous stimulation, I am Poem of the Forsaken Indian; by showing, as in the almost ashamed to have spoken of the feeble effort

with which I have endeavoured to counteract it; and, i It is worth while here to observe, that the affecting parts of Chauers are almost always expressed in language pure and univer- reflecting upon the magnitude of the general evil, I sally intelligiblo oven to this day.

should be oppressed with no dishonourable melancholy,

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had I not a deep impression of certain inherent and they have made a notable discovery, and exult over the indestructible qualities of the human mind, and like Poet as over a man ignorant of his own profession. wise of certain powers in the great and permanent Now these men would establish a canon of criticism objects that act upon it, which are equally inherent and which the Reader will conclude he must utterly reject, indestructible; and did I not further add to this im- if he wishes to be pleased with these pieces. And it pression a belief, that the time is approaching when would be a most easy task to prove to him, that not the evil will be systematically opposed, by men of only the language of a large portion of every good poem, greater powers, and with far more distinguished success. en of the most elevated character, must necessarily,

Haviny dwelt thus long on the subjects and aim of except with reference to the melre, in no respect differ these Poems, I shall request the Reader's permission to from that of good prose, but likewise that some of the apprise him of a few circumstances relating to their most interesting parts of the best poems will be found style, in order, among other reasons, that I may not be to be strictly the language of prose, when prose is well censured for not having performed what I never at-written. The truth of this assertion might be demontempled. The Reader will find that personifications of strated by innumerable passages from almost all the abstract ideas rarely occur in these volumes; and, I poetical writings, even of Millon himself. I have not hope, are utterly rejected, as an ordinary device to ele- space for much quotation; but, to illustrate the subject vate the style, and raise it above prose. I have proposed in a general manner, I will here adduce a short comto myself to intimate, and, as far as is possible, lo adopt position of Gray, who was at the head of those who, by the very language of men; and assuredly such personi- their reasonings, have attempted to widen the space of hcations do not make any natural or regular part of separation betwixt Prose and Metrical composition, and that language. They are, indeed, a figure of speech was more than any other man curiously elaborate in occasionally prompted by passion, and I have made use the structure of his own poetic diction. of them as such; but I have cudeavoured utterly to In vain to me the smiling mornings shine, reject them as a mechanical device of style, or as a And reddening Pharbas lifts his golden fire: family language which Writers in metre seem 'to Tay

The birds in vain their amoroas descant join,

Or cheerful fields resume their groen attire. claim to by prescription. I have wished to keep my

These ears, alas! for other notes repine; Reader in the company of tlesh and blood, persuaded A different object do these eyes require ; that by so doing I shall interest him. I am, however,

My lonely anguish melts no heart but mine; well aware that others who pursue a different track

And in my breast the imperfect joys expire:

Yet moroing smiles the busy race to cheer, may interest trim likewise; I do not interfere with

And new-born pleasure brings to happier men ; their claim, I only wish to prefer a different claim The belds to all their wonted tribute bear; of my own. There will also be found in these pieces To warm their little loves the birds complain. little of what is usually called poetic diction ; I

I fruitiess mourn to him that cannot hear, have taken as much pains to avoid it as others ordi

And weep the more because I weep in vain. parily take to produce it; this I have done for the It will easily be perceived, that the only part of this reason alreadly alleged, to bring my language near to Sonnet which is of any value is the lines printed in the language of men, and further, because the pleasure Julics; it is equally obvious, that, except in the rhyme, which I have proposed 10 myself to impart, is of a kind and in the use of the single word « fruitless» for fruitvery different from that which is supposed by many lessly, which is so far a defect, the language of these persons to be the proper object of poetry. I do not lines does in no respect differ from that of prose. know how, without being culpably particular, I can By the foregoing quotation I have shown that the give my Reader a more exact notion of the style in language of Prose may yet be well adapted to Poetry: which I wished these poems to be written, than, by in- and I have previously asserted, that a large portion of forming him that I have at all times endeavoured to the language of every good poem can in no respect look steadily at my subject, consequently, I hope that differ from that of good Prose. I will go further. I there is in these Poems little falsehood of description, do not doubt that it may be safely aflirmed, that there and that my ideas are expressed in language fitted to neither is, nor can be, any esseutial difference between their respective importance. Something I must have the language of prose and metrical composition. We gained hy this practice, as it is friendly to one property are fond of tracing the resemblance between Poetry and of all good poetry, namely, food sense; but it has ve- Painting, and, accordingly, we call them Sisters : but cessarily cut me off from a large portion of plırases and where shall we find bonds of connexion sufficiently figures of speech which from father to sou have long strict to typify the affinity betwixt metrical and prose been regarded as the coinmon iplcritance of Poets. composition? They both speak by and to the same have also thought it expedient to restrict myself still organs; the bodies in which both of them are clothed further, having abstained from the use of many expres may be said to be of the same substance, their affecsions, in themselves proper and beautiful, but wbich tious are kindred, and almost identical, not necessarily have been foolishly repeated by bad Poets, till such differing even in degree ; Poetry slieds no tears « such feclings of disgust are connected with them as it is as Angels weep,» but natural and human tears; she can scarcely possible by any art of association to over

" I bore use the word . Poetry (though against my own judgment) power. If in a poem there sliould be found a series of lines, position. But much confusion has been introduced into criticism by

as opposed to the word Prose, and synonymous with metrical comor even a single line, in which the language, though ibis contradistinction of Poetry and Prose, instead of the more phinaturally arranged, and according to the strict laws of losopbical one of Poetry and Natier of fact, or Science. The only metre, does not differ from that of prose, there is a

strict antithesis to Prose is Metre: nor is this, in truth, a strict anti

thesis ; be ause lines and passages of metre so naturally occur in numerous class of critics, who, when they stumble writing prose, ibat it would be scarely possible to avoid them, even upon these prosjisms, as they call them, imagine that were it desirabie.

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boast of no celestial Ichor that distinguishes her vital and volitions, and who rejoices more than other men juices from those of prose; the same human blood cir- in the spirit of life that is in him; delighting to conculates through the veins of them both.

template similar volitions and passions as manifested in If it be affirmed that rhyme and metrical arrange the goings-on of the Universe, and habitually impelled ment of themselves constitute a distinction which over to create them where he does not find them. To these turns what I have been saying on the strict affinity of qualities he has added, a disposition to be affected more metrical language with that of prose, and paves the than other men by absent things as if they were preway for other artificial distinctions which the mind sent; an ability of conjuring up in himself passions, voluntarily admits, I answer that the language of such which are indeed far from being the same as those Poetry as I am recommending is, as far as is possible, produced by real events, yet (especially in those parts a selection of the language really spoken by men; that of the general sympathy which are pleasing and delightthis selection, wherever it is made with true taste and ful) do more nearly resemble the passions produced by feeling, will of itself form a distinction far greater than real events, than any thing which, from the motions of would at first be imagined, and will entirely separate their own minds merely, other men are accustomed to the composition from the vulgarity and meanness of feel in themselves ; whence, and from practice, he has ordinary life; and, if metre be superadded thereto, I acquired a greater readiness and power in expressing believe that a dissimilitude will be produced altogether what he thinks and feels, and especially those thougbts sufficient for the gratification of a rational mind. and feelings which, by his own choice, or from the What other distinction would we have ? Whence is it structure of his own mind, arise in him without imto come? And where is it to exist? Not, surely, where mediate external excitement, the Poet speaks through the mouths of his characters : But, whatever portion of this faculty we may suppose it cannot be necessary here, either for elevation of style, even the greatest Poet to possess, there cannot be a or any of its supposed ornaments : for, if the Poet's doubt but that the language which it will suggest to subject be judiciously chosen, it will naturally, and him, must, in liveliness and truth, fall far short of that upon fit occasion, lead him to passions the language which is uttered by men in real life, under the actual of which, if selected truly and judiciously, must neces-pressure of those passions, certain shadows of which sarily be dignified and variegated, and alive with me the Poet thus produces, or feels to be produced, in himself. taphors and figures. I forbear to speak of an incon

However exalted a notion we would wish to cherish gruity which would shock the intelligent Reader, should of the character of a Poet, it is obvions, that, while he the Poet interweave any foreign splendour of his own

describes and imitates passions, his situation is altogewith that which the passion naturally suggests: it is ther slavish and mechanical, compared with the free sufficient to say that such addition is unnecessary. dom and power of real and substantial action and sufAnd, surely, it is more probable that those passages, fering. So that it will be the wish of the Poet to bring which with propriety abound with metaphors and fi- his feelings near to those of the persons whose feelings gures, will have their due effect, if, upon other occa he describes, nay, for short spaces of time, perhaps, to sions where the passions are of a milder character, the let himself slip into an entire delusion, and even constyle also be subdued and temperate.

found and identify his own feelings with theirs; modiBut, as the pleasure which I hope to give by the fying only the language which is thus suggested to him Poems I now present to the Reader must depend entirely by a consideration that he describes for a particular on just notions upon this subject, and, as it is in itself purpose, that of giving pleasure. Here, then, be will i of the highest importance to our taste and moral apply the principle on which I have so much insisted, feelings, I cannot content myself with these detached namely, that of selection ; on this he will depend for re remarks. And if, in what I am about to say, it shall moving what would otherwise be painful or disgusting appear to some that my labour is unnecessary, and that in the passion; he will feel that there is no necessity to I am like a man fighting a battle without enemies, I trick out or to elevale nature: and, the more industriwould remind such persons, that, whatever may be the ously he applies this principle, the deeper will be bis language outwardly holden by men, a practical faith in faith that no words, which his fancy or imagination i the opinions which I am wishing to establish is almoost can suggest, will be to be compared with those which unknown. If my conclusions are admitted, and carried are the emanations of reality and truth. as far as they must be carried if admitted at all, our But it may be said by those who do not object to the judgments concerning the works of the greatest Poets general spirit of these remarks, that, as it is impossible both ancient and modern will be far different from for the poet to produce upon all occasions language as ! what they are at present, both when we praise, and exquisitely fitted for the passion as that which the real | when we censure : and our moral feelings influencing passion itself suggests, it is proper that he should consiand influenced by these judgments will, I believe, be der himself as in the situation of a translator, who corrected and purified.

deems himself justified when he substitutes excellencies Taking up the subject, then, upon general grounds, of another kind for those which are unattainable by I ask what is meant by the word Poet? What is a Poet? him; and endeavours occasionally to surpass liis origiTo whom does he address liimself? And what language val, in order to make some amends for the general inis to be expected from him? He is a man speaking, to feriority 10 which he feels that he must submit. But men: a man, it is true, endued with more lively sensi- this would be to encourage idleness and unmanly des- ' bility, more enthusiasm and tenderness, who has a pair. Further, it is the language of men who speak of grcater kvowledge of human nature, and a more com what they do not understand ; who talk of Poetry as of prehensive soul, than are supposed to be common a matter of amusement and idle pleasure; who will among mankind; a man pleased with his own passions converse with us as gravely about a taste for Poetry, as

hey express it, as if it were a thing as indifferent as a lities of nature. And thus the Poet, prompted by this taste for Rope-dancing, or Frontiniac or Sherry. Aris feeling of pleasure which accompanies him through the fotle, I have been told, hath said, that Poetry is the most whole course of his studies, converses with general naphilosophic of all writing: it is so: its object is truth, ure with affections akio 10 those, which, through lanot individual and local, but general, and operative; bour and length of time, the Man of Science has raised not standing upou external testimony, but carried alive up in himself, by conversing with those particular parts into the heart by passion; truth which is its own testi- of nature which are the objects of his studies. The mony, which gives strength and divinity to the tribunal knowledge both of the Poet and the Man of Science is to which it appeals, and receives them from the same pleasure, but the knowledge of the one cleaves to us as tribunal. Poetry is the image of man and oature. The a necessary part of our existence, our natural and unobstacles which stand in the way of the fidelity of the alienable inheritance; the other is a personal and indiBiographer and Historian, and of their consequent uti- vidual acquisition, slow to come to us, and by no hability, are incalculably greater than those which are to be cual and direct sympathy connecting us with our fellowencountered by the Poet who has an adequate notion of beings. The Man of Science seeks truth as a remote the dignity of his art. The Poet writes under one re- and unknown benefactor; be cherishes and loves it in striction only, namely, that of the necessity of giving his solitude: the Poet, singing a song in which all huimmediate pleasure to a human being possessed of that man beings join with him, rejoices in the presence

of information which may be expected from him, not as a truth as our visible friend and hourly companion. Poelawyer, a physician, a marioer, an astronomer, or a na- try is the breath and finer spirit of all knowledge; it is tural philosopher, but as a Man. Except this one re- the impassioned expression which is in the countenance striction, there is no object standing between the Poct of all Science. Emphatically may it be said of the Poet, and the image of things; between this, and the Biogra- as Shakspeare hath said of man, « that lie looks before pher and Historian there are a thousand,

and after » He is the rock of defence of human nature; Nor let this necessity of producing immediate plea ao npholder and preserver, carryiog every where with sure be considered as a degradation of the Poet's art. It liim relationship and love. Iu spite of difference of soil is far otherwise. It is an acknowledgment of the beauty and climate, of language and manners, of laws and cusof the universe, an acknowledgment the more sinccre, toms, in spite of things silently gone out of mind, and because it is not formal, but indirect; it is a task light things violently destroyed, the Poet binds together by and easy to him who looks at the world in the spirit of passion and knowledge the vast empire of luman solove: further, it is an homage paid to the native and ciety, as it is spread over the whole earth, and over all naked dignity of man, to the grand clementary printime. The objects of the Poet's thoughts are every ciple of pleasure, by wbich he knows, and feels, and where; though the eyes and senses of man are, it is true, lives, and moves, We have no sympathy but what is his favourite guides, yet he will follow wheresoever he propagated by pleasure: I would not be misunderstood; can find an atmosphere of sensation in which to move but wherever we sympathise with pain, it will be found his wings. Poetry is the first and last of all knowledge tbat the sympathy is produced and carried on by subtle

- it is as immortal as the heart of man. If the labours combinations with pleasure. We have no kuowledge, of Meu of Science should ever create any material revothat is, no general principles drawn from the contem. Jution, direct or indirect, in our condition, and in the plation of particular facts, but what has been built up impressions which we habitually receive, the Poet will by pleasure, and exists in us by pleasure alone. The sleep then no more than at present, but he will be Mau of Science, the Chemist and Mathematician, what- ready to follow tbe steps of the Man of Science, not only ever difficulties and disgusts they may have had to in those general indirect effects, but be will be at his struggle with, know and feel this. However painful | side, carrying sensation into the midst of the objects of may be the objects with which the Anatomist's know- the Science itself. The remotest discoveries of the Cheledge is connected, he feels that his knowledge is plea- mist, the Botanist, or Mineralogist, will be as proper sure; and where he has no pleasure he has no know. objects of the Poet's art as any upon which it can be ledge. What then does the Poet? He considers man employed, if the time should ever come when these and the objects that surround him as acting and re-ac-things shall be familiar to us, and the relations under ting upon each otber, so as to produce au infinite com- which they are conteinplated by the followers of these plexity of pain and pleasure; he considers man in his respective Sciences stali be manifesily and palpably own nature and in his ordinary life as contemplating material to us as enjoying and suffering beings. If the this with a certain quantity of immediate knowledge, time should ever come when what is now called Sciwith certain convictions, intuitions, and deductions, ence, thus familiarised to men, shall be ready to put which by habit become of the nature of intuitious; he on, as it were, a form of lesh and blood, die Poet will considers him as looking upon this complex scene of lend luis divine spirit to aid the transfiguration, and will ideas and sensations, and finding every where objects welcome the Being thus produced, as a dear and gethat immediately excite in him sympathies which, from nuine inmate of the liousehold of man.-It is not, then, the necessities of his nature, arc accompanied by an to be supposed that any one, who holds that sublime over balance of enjoyment.

notion of Poetry which I have attempted to convey, will To this knowledge which all men carry about with break in upon the sanctity and truth of his pictures by them, and to these sympathics in wbich, without any transitory and accidental ornaments, and endeavour to other discipline than that of our daily life, we are fit excile admiration of himself by arts, the necessity of teil to take delight, the Poet principally directs his at- which must manifestly depend upon the assumed meantention. He considers man and nature as essentially ness of his subject. adapted to cach other, and the mind of man as oalu- What I bave thus far said applies to Poetry in gerally the mirror of the fairest and most interesting qua. veral; but especially to those parts of composition

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