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noticed that there is no Hiberniam in the passage as given by Fordoun; and his notice of Palladius' mission to the Scots is in accordance with the Saxon Chronicle, which also leaves out all notice of Ireland and Hibernia in connection with Palladius' mission.
Passing Talore, the next king after Drust, we come to Nectan Morbreac or Morbet, after whose name the following occurs: "Tertio anno regni ejus Darlugdach, abbatissa Cille-Dara de Hibernia exulat pro Christo ad Britiniam; anno adventus aui immolavit Nectonius anno uno Apurnighe Deo et sanctæ Brigidæ, præsente Darlugdach, quæ cantavit alleluia super istam." A note to this passage, which appears on pages 161-3, says: "These statements are false and out of chronology. Pictland and Abernethy were not then Christian, nor was St Bridget then born, nor was Darluchdach yet abbess of Kildare." Further on the same note informs us that Fordoun "ascribes the foundation of Abernethy to St Bridget and her seven virgins, but places it in the reign of Garnard Makdompnach, the successor of the Bruide in whose times St Columba preached to the Picts, which is of course more probable."
It will be seen from the above that whenever the Irish account of the Cruithnian kings and the early part of the Pictish Chronicle introduce Ireland, or rather Hibernia, the information given along with it is contradicted by other authorities who evidently used the same original manuscript from which these two were compiled, and at the same time interpolated.
FLORENCE OF WORCESTER'S CHRONICLE.
Florence of Worcester's Chronicle is the next work
we propose to analyse. It is mainly a copy of the Chronicle compiled by Marianus Scotus, who was born in 1028 and died in 1052. Under the year 1028, Florence calls Marianus a Scot of Hibernia.1 Marianus himself says he was born in Scotia; and he never expressly affirms that this was the name of Ireland or Hibernia; but he gives a clear indication of the country of his birth by connecting kings Duncan and Macbeth with Scotia. 2 Ireland lays no claim to a monarch of the name of Macbeth in the eleventh century.
At the year 446, Florence speaks of the Scots and Picts coming from the north to invade the territories of the Romanised Britons in unison with other writers. At 651, Finan is said to have been sent by the Scots; and at 661 he is said to have been succeeded by Colman, who was also sent out of Scotland. At 664, Colman, we are told, rejoined his adherents in Scotland, which is also called his own country. From these instances, selected from others of the same nature, and compared with what has been said about these Scottish priests in reviewing Bede's Ecclesiastical History (above, page 39), it will be seen that Florence's Scotia was the Scotland of the present day, or at least a part of it.
Some of the interpolations which occur in Florence's Chronicle may now be given to show their character. "A.D. 491. St Patrick, archbishop of Ireland, made a blessed end, aged 122 years." "521. St Bridget, the Scottish nun, died in Ireland." 672. As he (Bishop Ceadda) was departing out of this world, the most
1 Translation in Bohn's Antiquarian Library, which is the edition referred to throughout this notice.
2 Burton's History of Scotland, vol. i., p. 207, aud Chalmers' Cale donia, vol. i., p. 408, note.
reverend father Egbert, who had been his fellow-scholar in Ireland, saw the spirit of St Chad, the bishop, Ceadda's brother, with an host of angels, descend from heaven, and bear it upwards with them on their return to the realms of bliss." "674. Ireland, the island of the saints, was gloriously filled with holy men and wonderful works." " 687. St Killian, a Scot,
born in Ireland, and bishop of Wartzburg, became eminent." These interpolations in two instances connect the Scots with Ireland; but that country is never called Scotia here or elsewhere in Florence's Chronicle. After these interpolations, however, it may be as well to give a few more quotations from the genuine text, in which Scots are connected with Scotland. At the year 901, in speaking of the life of King Edward, it is said that "he also reduced to subjection the king of the Scots, the Cumbrians, and the Strathclyde and Western Britons." At 1050, "Macbeth, king of Scotland," is spoken of. "A.D. 1054. Siward, the stout earl of Northumbria, by order of the king, entered Scotland, with a large body of cavalry, and a powerful fleet, and fought a battle with Macbeth, king of the Scots, in which the king was defeated with the loss of many thousands, both of the Scots and of the Normans."
The reader may now be able to judge whether the following celebrated Scots belonged to Ireland or Scotland. They are claimed by the Irish, but as Florence does not say they were born in Ireland, or had ever been in that country, their claim cannot be allowed. "974. Eberger, archbishop of Cologne, gave the abbey of St Martin at Cologne to the Scots for ever. Minborin, a Scot, was the first abbot." " 986. Minborin, the Scotch abbot, died in the abbey of St
Martin at Cologne.
Killin succeeded him."
1003. "Killian, a Scot, and abbot of the Scottish monastery of St Martin, died. Helias, a Scot, succeeded him." 1042. "Abbot Elias, a Scot, died
of St Martin. He was succeeded by Maiolus, a Scot, a holy man. 1061. Maiolus, abbot of the Scots, died at Cologne; Foilan succeeded him."
distinction is made between the Scots over whom Macbeth was king and these Scots just mentioned, they were evidently all born in Scotland.
Between these notices the following relating to Ireland appear, which are so characteristic as to be worth reproducing:
Animchadus, a Scottish monk, who led a life of seclusion in the monastery at Fulda, died. Over his tomb lights were seen, and there was the voice of psalmody. Marianus, the author of this chronicle, took up his station as a recluse for ten years at his feet, and sang masses over his tomb. He has related what follows respecting this Animchadus: 'When I was in Ireland,' says Marianus, ‘in an island called Keltra, he entertained, with the permission of his superior, named Cortram, certain brethren who came there. Some of them departed after their meal, but those who remained sat warming themselves at the fire, and asked him for something to drink, and on his refusing to give it without leave, they urged him to comply. At last he consented, but first sent some of the beverage to his superior, for his blessing. On the morrow, being asked for what reason he sent it, he related all the circumstances. But his superior, for this slight fault, immediately ordered him to quit Ireland, and he humbly obeyed. He then came to Fulda, and lived a life of holy seclusion, as I have already said, until his death. This was told us by the superior, Tigernah, on my committing some slight fault in his presence. Moreover, I myself heard, while I was in seclusion at Fulda, a very devout monk of that monastery, whose name was William, implore the aforesaid Animchadus, who was
then in his tomb, to give him his benediction; and, as he afterwards told me, he saw him in a vision standing in his tomb, shining with great brightness, and giving him his benediction with outstretched arms; and I, too, passed the whole of that night in the midst of a mellifluous odour.' These are the words of Marianus."
Marianus says he was obliged to leave his country, which in his own work he calls Scotia, on account of religious disputes. This notice in Florence. has evidently been fabricated, not only to connect Marianus with Ireland, but also to show why he left his native country. It is very unlikely that the slight fault noticed here is the religious disputes referred to by Marianus; and the marvellous circumstances with which it is connected, are alone sufficient to discredit it. The other notice of Ireland appearing between the notices of the Scots of Cologne is as follows: "1053.
. Aed, a long-bearded clerk in Ireland, a man of great eminence and earnest piety, had a large school of clerks, maidens, and laymen; but he subjected the maidens to the tonsure in the same manner as clerks, on which account he was compelled to leave Ireland."
HENRY OF HUNTINGDON'S HISTORY.
Henry of Huntingdon is considered to be one of the earliest of the English historians as distinguished from chroniclers. He lived in the first half of the twelfth century. The first two books of his history are mainly a compilation from Bede's Ecclesiastical History and the Saxon Chronicle. The third book is an epitome of Bede's information relating to the conversion of the English to Christianity. There appears to be no manuscript extant which can be considerd to have been written by