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[A.D. 908-1034. Strathclyde, under a separate line of Scottish princes, commonly owning Saxon lordship a, extends probably to the eastern and southern boundaries of the subsequent sees of Glasgow and Carlisle b, but with a distinct lordship of Galloway before or about A.D. 1000o.

A.D. 1034. It is merged in the Scottish crown and kingdom d.

A.D. 1053-1114. Bishops of Glasgow consecrated at York. But

A.D. 1070-1091. Scottish Kings rule over Cumberland and Westmoreland as well as
Scottish Cumbria ".

A.D. 1092. William Rufus, and A.D. 1122 Henry I., occupy and fortify Carlisle.
A.D. 1107-1124. David Earl of (Scottish) Cumbra-land restores the see of Glasgow,
and as a Scottish see.

A.D. 1126-1133. Sees of Galloway and Carlisle founded respectively by David or
Fergus, and by Henry I., but as subject to York.

A.D. 1136. David regains English Cumberland 8.

A.D. 1138. Synod of Carlisle, under David and the Papal legate, allows the new (English) see of Carlisle.

A.D. 1147. Cumberland (English) with Northumberland and Durham ceded to Scotland by the Treaty of Carlisle.

A.D. 1157. English Cumbria and the other northern counties surrendered by Malcolm
IV. to Henry II. h

A.D. 1174. The see of Glasgow declared by Pope Alexander III. to depend directly
upon the Pope.

A.D. 1177. Bishop of Galloway summoned to the Synod of Edinburgh as a Scottish
Bishop, but refuses to appear.

A.D. 1188. Bull of Clement III. declaring the independence of the Scottish Church,
includes Glasgow in the list of Scottish sees, but omits Galloway.]

a Donald, brother of Constantine King of Scotland, elected King of Strathclyde, A.D. 908: "Strætglædwali," and their King, submit to Eadweard the Elder, A.D. 921 (A. S. C. 924, Flor. Wig. 921): and " Eugenius Rex Cumbrorum" to Athelstan at Dacre, A.D. 926 (W. Malm. G. R. A., II. 134): are plundered by Northmen, A.D. 921 (Chron. in Skene 407): on the Scottish side at Brunanburh, A.D. 937 (G. Gaimar, M. H. B. 808 a): "Combirland" given by Eadmund to Dovenaldus (V. S. Cadröes) or Donald (Chron. in Skene 204) before A.D. 945: and on Donald's defeat and death at Dunmailraise (Rog.

Wend., Ann. Camb., Brut y Tyw.) to Malcolm of Scotland, A.D. 945 (A. S. C., Flor. Wig., etc.) a separate Strathclyde Prince again before A.D. 971, when Kenneth of Scotland ravaged "Saxonia" as far as Stanemoor,


Cluia," and Dearham (Chron. in Skene 10): "Malcolm Rex Cumbrorum" (son of Donald or Domnaill ob. A.D. 945), homager in A.D. 973 (with, among others, Dufnall or Domnaill of the Welsh Strathclyde, ob. A.D. 975) to Eadgar (A. S. C., Flor. Wig., Rog Wend.), and dies A.D. 997 (Ann. Tig. and Ulton.): Ethelred ravages Cumberland, now the ima mansio Dacorum," A.D. 1000 (H. Hunt.,



M. H. B. 750): Eogan of Strathclyde, “ Rex [Clutinensium," on the Scottish side at Carham, A.D. 1018 (Sim. Dun., M. H. B. 594 n.): Donchad or Duncan, "Rex Cumbrorum," probably by election (Flor. Wig. a. 1054, W. Malm. G. R. A., II. 196), becomes King also of Scotland, A.D. 1034.

b About A.D. 945, to the Rerecross on Stanemoor (Chron. in Skene 204): and about same time, "usque Loidam civitatem" (the province or district of Leeds) "quæ est confinium Normannorum" (Northumbrian Danes) "et Cumbrorum" (V. S. Cadröes, in Colg. 497) in A.D. 971, "ad Stanmoir et ad Cluiam et ad Stangna Dera'm" (Chron. in Skene 10): in A.D. 1091, to the "provincia Loidis" (Sim. Dun. 216) or "Lothene on Engla-land" (A. S. C.). This would take the district only as far south as about Workington and the Derwent on the coast side, and would include about two-thirds only of Westmoreland on the east; although probably including also the district east of Wetherall in Cumberland up to the present county boundaries of Northumberland and Durham. Further north, the revived earldom of Cumbria A.D. 1107, and see of Glasgow, beginning with the Lennox in Stirlingshire, included eastwards the counties of Lanark, Peebles, Selkirk, and Roxburgh or Teviotdale south of the Tweed, although the last was only taken from Durham diocese ecclesiastically about A.D. 1100. Stirling is described even by Fordun (VIII. 79) as a" locus marchialis, Scotiam et Britanniam intermedians sive connectens," and again (XII. 20) as "ad fines Britanniæ constitutus," and the bridge over the Forth at Stirling as "inter Britanniam et Scotiam, utriusque marginem apprehendens" (quoted by Joseph Robertson, Stat. Eccl. Scot.). And even the Lothians (Loida in Scotland, as e. g. in Sim. Dun.) are called "Britannia Septentrionalis in the V. S. Kentegern in the Glasgow Chartulary (written A.D. 1147 X 1164). "West


moringaland" (A. S. C.) or "Westmereland" (G. Gaimar) seems first mentioned in A.D. 966, when Northmen plundered it. Rog. Wend. has a "Jukil Westmeriæ Rex" in A.D. 973.

The facts are probable, the authority suspicious. The only other witnesses on the

Suibne King of the Gallgaedhel died A.D. 1034 (Ann. Tig. and Ulton.); and Rog.Wend. has a " Jacobus Rex Galwalliæ" in A.D. 973. Fergus, the earliest known lord of Galloway, was David's contemporary c. 1100 onwards.

d See end of note ". A.D. 1037, Eadulf, Earl of Northumbria, devastated the "Britones, id est, Walas" (Sim. Dun. in Hoveden, I. 58).


• Malcolm Ceanmore holds Cumberland and Westmoreland by force, A.D. 1070 (Sim. Dun. 200) and goes out of Scotland into "Loidis" or "Lothene," A.D. 1091 (A. S. C., Flor. Wig.): but did homage to William the Conqueror, A.D. 1072 (Chron. de Mailros, A. S. C.); William Rufus rebuilds and fortifies Carlisle, A.D. 1092 (Sim. Dun. 217, A. S. C.): and Henry I., A.D. 1122 (Sim. Dun. 246).

The land of the "Bretti" or "Cumbraland," but only part of it, i. e. the Scottish part (Inquis. Davidis, about A.D. 1120). David became King of Scotland A.D. 1124.

8 Chron. de Mailros, in an. His son Henry holds it as an English fief from the end of Feb. 1136 (Jo. Hagust. p. 114, ed. Raine).

h Gervas. 1377, 1378; W. Neubrig., II. 1-4; Hoveden, I. 216. The final and absolute surrender was made by Alexander II. to Henry III., A.D. 1237 (Treaty in Rymer, I. 233).

i Galloway remained ecclesiastically subject to York (although civilly part of Scotland) until about the middle of the 14th century, and nominally until S. Andrew's became a metropolitan see in A.D. 1472. See below in Append. B. The last claim of Glasgow to Carlisle was in A.D. 1258: see above on p. 2. The customs of " Scot and Bret" were abolished finally by Edward I., Sept. 15, A.D. 1305 (Parliamentary Writs, I. 162). And see also Acts of Parl. Scot., I. 299.

A.D. 1053 x 1060. Bishops of Glasgow consecrated by Kinsi Archbishop

of York a

STUBBS, Act. Pont. Ebor.-Kinsius Magsuem ad Ecclesiam Glescuensem ordinavit Episcopum: similiter et successorem illius Magsuem, Johannem, eidem Ecclesiæ subrogatum consecravit, et ab eis cartam professionis accepit, quæ in conflagratione Eboracensis ecclesiæ a Normannis facta cum.... cæteris cartis combustæ sunt. [Twysd. 1700; from Reg. Magn. Alb. Ebor., as quoted below, p. 14.]


subject, both of them adverse, are 1. Ralph of Canterbury, in his letter to Pope Calixtus in



A.D. 1119 (see below under Scottish Church),
who affirms, that prior to the Archiepiscopate
of Thomas II. of York (A.D. 1109 × 114)
Glasgow had had no Bishop pene præter
memoriam," and that York had never had
Glasgow as a suffragan see "excepto hoc
Normannorum tempore," while all older Glas-
gow Bishops, when there were any, down to
Norman times, were Britons, who sought con-
secration either in Wales or Ireland: 2. the
Inquisitio Davidis, which asserts that Kente-
gern had had
plures successores," but im-
plies that this line of Bishops had died out
with the Church itself of the land, and that
Earl David (A.D. 1107-1124) was the first
to restore it. Yet neither of these is abso-
lutely inconsistent with the supposition of one
or more suffragans of York, fifty years earlier,
living mainly in York diocese, and probably not
recognized in Glasgow. Compare also the like
recourse at the same period by the Welsh Church


of Llandaff to Archbishop Kinsi: see above, vol. I. pp. 292, 293. The claim of York over Glasgow, as distinct from the general claim of the English Church over the Scottish, rested upon no other grounds than the insufficient ones of the actual and long-continued subjection to York, 1. of all English Cumbria (either as part of Lindisfarne or Durham until about A.D. 1100 or 1101, or, after that date, as part of York itself), 2. of the Anglian see of Galloway. For the general claim, either of the English Church, or of Canterbury as against York or vice versa, over all Scotland, see below, under the Scottish Church. The history of Bishop Michael, A.D. 1109 × 1114 (see below), which seems to rest on stronger evidence, carries with it a presumption in favour of the earlier suffragans also. And Archbishop Ralph is a witness who has to make out a case of his own.

A.D. 1072. Council of Windsor. Compact between Lanfranc of Canterbury and Thomas I. of York, [giving to the latter the jurisdiction over the whole region from the boundaries of Lichfield diocese and the river Humber northwards, " usque ad extremos Scotia fines" (W., I. 324, 325), and to which Bishop Foderoch of S. Andrew's is said to have consented on the part of Malcolm and Margaret of Scotland. See below, under the Scottish Church.]

A.D. 1089. Nunnery founded at Armethwaite in Cumberland, by William Rufus".

a Charter in Dugd. Mon., III. 271.

A.D. 1100 x 1107. English Cumbria (together with Hexhamshire) and Teviotdale taken from the Diocese of Durham, the former assigned to York, the latter falling to Glasgow a.

MONACH. DUN. De Episc. Dun.—[Ranulphus Episcopus Dunelmensis] suæ diœceseos appenditia, sc. Carleol et Teviettedale, revocare nequibat; quæ, illo exulante, cum Ecclesia non haberet defensorem, ad suas [diœceses] quidam Episcoporum applicaverant. [ap. Wharton, A. S., I. 708; and Twysd. 61.]

BREVIAR. CHRON. HEXHAM.-Orta dissentione inter Henricum Regem Angliæ Primum et Ranulphum Dunelmensem Episcopum, dictus Rex dictum Episcopum Ecclesia Haugustaldensi cum regione

[ENGLISH CUMBERLAND ASSIGNED TO YORK, TEVIOTDALE TO GLASGOW.] pertinenti privavit et contulit Episcopatui Eboracensi. [ap. Raine, Mem. of Hexham, vol. I. p. 220.]

"Anno 1113 Henricus Rex. Ranulpho Dunelmensi Episcopo infensus, villam et Ecclesiam Hagustaldensem ab Ecclesia Dunelmensi abripuit, et Thomæ Archiepiscopo Eboracensi contulit, una cum jurisdictione integri Cumbriæ comitatus, qui ad sedem Hagustaldensem olim pertinuit. Pars tamen dioecesis Hagustaldensis, h. e. quæ intra Northumbria comitatum sita erat, penes Dunelmensem remansit et adhuc remanet. Reliqua partim Archiepiscopo Ebor. partim Episcopo Glascuensi ab anno 1113 ad 1135 subdita, Episcopatui Carleolensi anno 1135 fundato assignata est" (Hist. Episc. Dun. in Wharton, A. S., I. 699). This statement requires a few slight corrections. All Cumbria was never within the see of Hexham, only that part of what is now Cumberland which lies east from Wetherall, on the Eden above Carlisle, up to the boundaries of Northumberland. And the Hexhamshire which was within the present county of Northumberland was given over to York, but certainly not all Hexham diocese.

A.D. 1135 should be 1132 or 1133. Lastly, what really happened, plainly was, that Hexhamshire (and indeed the whole northern district) being absolutely devastated by William the Conqueror, Thomas I. of York (A.D. 1070-1100) took possession of it, and no doubt of Cumbria also, as a sort of waif and stray; and that Henry I. confirmed that possession to Thomas II. (A.D. 1109-1113). See Raine, Mem. of Hexham, vol. I. p. 220, App. p. viii., and Pref. pp. xlvii. lvi. Glas

gow is found in possession of Teviotdale, and indeed of all Roxburghshire south of the Tweed, at the revival of that see by David A.D. 1107-1124, thus bringing down Durham to nearly its later northern boundary. And Glasgow of course also claimed Cumbria. Jedburgh was still subject to Durham A.D. 1093 (Sim. Dun., Hist Eccl. Dun., IV. 8, and De Gest. Reg. Angl., Twysd. 204). Flambard was in exile A.D. 1100-1107. Wharton must have taken his date of A.D. 1113 from that of the end of Thomas's Episcopate.

A.D. 1101. Pope Paschal II. to the Suffragans of York, enjoining obedience to Gerard Archbishop of that See.

[See below, under the Scottish Church. ]

A.D. 1101 X 1112. Benedictine cell (to S. Mary's of York) founded at Wetheralla.

a On the Eden in Cumberland, by Ranulph de Meschines (Dugd. Mon., III. 581).

a See above, in vol. I. p. 303. The story goes to prove the existence of British Bishops in Strathclyde (which the context proves to be meant by" Britannia"), between Magsuem and John (above mentioned), and Michael, in

A.D. 1102. A British Bishop, apparently of Strathclyde, gives refuge

to S. Magnus.

A.D. 1109 X 1114; possibly genuine British Bishops, who had nothing at all to do with York. The Inquisitio Davidis can hardly be relied upon as conclusively negativing such a supposition.


A.D. 1102. Augustinian Canons established at Carlisle by Henry I." FORDUN, Scotickron., V. 39.- Henricus [I.] persuasione et consilio ipsius Reginæ [Matildis] anno MCII. constituit Canonicos Regulares in Kaerleil.


A grant by Henry I. to the Canons of S. Mary of Carlisle is in Dugdale, Mon., VI. i. 144, witnessed by (among others) William

In A.D. 1109 Alexander of Scotland consented to the consecration of Turgot of S. Andrew's by the same Archbishop Thomas, rights of both Churches being reserved. There is nothing improbable, therefore, in David (Earl of Cumbria A.D. 1107-1124) seeking consecration for a Glasgow Bishop from Thomas at that same time; although probably neither he nor Alexander would have allowed such a step after Turgot's death in A.D. 1115. And the Inquisitio Davidis, which speaks of no earlier nomination by David than that of John (see below), is not conclusive evidence against a York Bishop

Bishop of Winchester and Bernard 'Bishop of S. David's, and dated therefore A.D. 1116 x 1128.

A.D. 1109 x 1114. A Bishop of Glasgow consecrated by Archbishop Thomas II. of York a.

STUBBS, Act. Pontif. Ebor.-Iste Thomas sanctum virum Michaelem, quem David Comes, postea Rex Scotia, Glasguensis Ecclesiæ Episcopum statuit et ipsi Thomæ ordinandum transmisit, eidem Ecclesiæ Episcopum consecravit; qui Eboracensi Ecclesiæ et Archiepiscopo Thomæ suisque successoribus canonicam obedientiam profitendo scriptam tradidit, quæ sic incipit, Ego Michael Glesguensis Ecclesiæ, etc. Hic aliquamdiu cum Archiepiscopo conversatus, in diocesi nostra [sc. Ebor.] jussu Archiepiscopi ecclesias dedicavit et in ecclesia de Morlond ordines fecit. In qua felici fine ad Deum migrans sepultus requiescit. [Twysd. 1713.]

REG. MAGN. ALB. Ebor.-Thomas] iste Michaelem hominem sanctum Glesguensi ecclesiæ ordinavit Episcopum, qui Eboracensi Ecclesiæ et T. Archiepiscopo et successoribus suis canonicam obedientiam profitendo scriptam tradidit. Hic aliquamdiu cum Archiepiscopo conversatus jussu illius in diœcesi nostra ecclesias dedicavit, et ordines fecit in ecclesia de Morlund, in qua felici fine ad Deum migrans sepultus requiescit. Hujus antecessores Magsuem et Johannem Kinsinus Ebor. Archiepiscopus Episcopos consecravit, sicut a viris veracibus accepimus, qui se hoc vidisse testabantur; sed propter hostilem impugnationem et desolationem et barbariem terræ diu Ecclesia sine pastore fuit, donec David Comes, postea Rex Scotia, prædictum Michaelem Episcopum constituit, [et] T. Archiepiscopo consecrandum transmisit.

whom in all likelihood the change of circumstances, and possibly or probably an early death, precluded from coming to Glasgow as Bishop at all. That John and Michael were not the same person, seems proved by the facts, 1. that John was consecrated by Pope Paschal with the consent of Thurstin of York, Michael by Archbishop Thomas of York: 2. that John lived in Glasgow diocese when he was not running away (he was at York however in A.D. 1128), Michael always in diocese of York: 3. that John died in A.D. 1147 and was buried at Jedburgh, while Michael died and was buried in some year unknown at Mor

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