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[KELEDEI (CULDEES) IN SCOTLAND.]
supra mentionem fecimus, Deo et sancto Apostolo Andreæ dederat, et postea ablata fuerat, ex integro instituit, eo nimirum obtentu et conditione ut in ipsa Ecclesia constitueretur religio ad Deo deserviendum. Non enim erat qui beati Apostoli altari deserviret, nec ibi missa celebrabatur nisi cum Rex vel Episcopus illo advenerat, quod raro contingebat. Keledei namque in angulo quodam ecclesiæ, quæ modica nimis erat, suum officium more suoh celebrabant. Cujus donationis regiæ testes multi sunt superstites. Quam donationem et Comes David frater ejus concessit, quem Rex heredem destinaverat, et in regno successorem, sicut est hodie. [Regist. Prior. S. Andr.: printed in Append. to Reeves's Culdees, 106-109, and elsewhere.]
"Twelve brethren and a Prior, as at Monymusk" (Reeves).
b = Anmchara, the Irish expression for confessor or spiritual adviser, latinized here into (what appears to have been really the derivation of the word) anima cara, or in the plural "animæ chara" (Reeves). See above on pp. 154, 172.
ei.e. not in their official residences, while upon duty; as expressly in the Dunkeld record of Dean Mylne (given below). So Reeves, and the matter is plain from the remainder of the passage.
di. e. Seven besides the Keledei, the Bishop being one, and the Hospital (= place of guests, a nearly invariable adjunct of all Culdee institutions) representing another. Their office had become nearly a sinecure, and themselves
laymen; the Keledei discharging the offices of the Church, and being as it were vicars to the seven (or rather five) as rectors. The revenues of the seven persons were it appears transferred, bit by bit, to the new body of Canons established by Bishop Robert in the time of King David.
e Reeves wishes to correct into “nullam." immo etiam, according to Reeves.
8 Cursus Apri= Mucros or Nemus Porcorum, the earliest name for S. Andrew's. See Reeves's note.
h Probably after some (Irish) peculiarities, like those which the "Saxon" party headed by Queen Margaret condemned in that Queen's councils, or those which at the same period were denounced by the like influence in Ireland itself. See above, p. 157.
2. Extract from Dean Mylne's Lives of the Bishops of Dunkeld.
MYLNE, Vila Dunkeld. Eccles. Episcoporum [c. A.D. 1485]. — Scripturum me de vestræ sedis initio, oportet primo retexere qualiter Constantinus Pictorum Rex tertius, divo Columbæ totius tunc regni patrono devotus, monasterium insigne super ripam fluminis Tayensis, in locis illis quæ nunc occupatis vos, reverende pater, pro orto orientali, et vos Alexander pro mansione de Creif, in ejusdem divi Columbe honorem ad Sancti Adampnani instantiam construxit et dotavit, circa annos Domini septingentos viginti novem, post constructam ecclesiam de Abernethi ad annos ducentos viginti sex, novem menses et sex dies, at, ut aliorum est opinio, ducentos quadraginta quatuor. In quo quidem monasterio imposuit vires religiosos, quos nominavit vulgus Kelledeos, aliter Colideos, hoc est, colentes Deum; habentes tamen secundum Orientalis Ecclesiæ ritum conjuges, a quibus dum vicissim ministrarunt abstinebant; sicut postea in Ecclesia beati Reguli, nunc Sancti Andreæ, consuetum tunc fuit. Sed dum placuit Altissimo totius Christianæ religionis Moderatori, crescenteque principum devotione et sanctitate, David Rex sanctus, junior filiorum Malcolmi Canmor Regis et
[KELEDEI (CULDEES) IN SCOTLAND.]
Sanctæ Margaretæ Reginæ, mutato monasterio, in ecclesiam cathedralem erexit; et repudiatis Kelledeis, Episcopum et Canonicos instituit, seculareque collegium in futurum esse ordinavit, circa annos Domini mille centum et viginti septem. Primus tunc Episcopus illius pro tempore monasterii abbas, et Regis postea consiliarius, erat. [pp. 4, 5, ed. Bannatyne Club, Edinb. 1831.]
3. Catalogue of Religious Houses, at the end of the Chronicle of Henry of Silgrave, c. A.D. 1272, so far as it relates to Scotland [from Cott. MS. Cleopat. A. XII. fol. 56]".
a Printed also in Stevenson's notes to the Scalachronica, pp. 241, 242. See an account of it in Reeves, Culdees, p. 32. It is given here as supplying the only evidence to the Keledean character of several of the institutions mentioned in it. But it seems to refer to "a state of things anterior to its own date" (Reeves); it is obviously very incomplete, even as a list of foundations of what may be called King David's era; and, except in the case of Bishoprics, it omits all mention of monasteries of Irish date and type, as e. g. Deer and Turriff. There seem also to be mistakes in it. E. g. in respect to Roxburgh, where was a Franciscan monastery from about A.D. 1235; and Jedburgh, which belonged to
[See note a.]
[Alexander I., A.D. 1115.]
[? Restennot, a cell of Jedburgh.]
[Malcolm IV., A.D. 1164.] [William I., A.D. 1178.]
[Urquhart in Moray, David, A.D. 1124.]
[In Moray, David, A.D. 1150.]
[Kilwinning, Hugh de Moreville, A.D. 1140.]
[Whitherne, Fergus of Galloway, A.D. 1125 x 1160: see above, p. 25.]
Augustinian Canons; and Perth, where was a Dominican monastery, founded A.D. 1231, but no nunnery. See Spotiswood (Religious Houses, &c.). The founders' names, and the dates, have been added in . All of them, with one exception, and setting aside the three cases which appear to be errors, fall within the period between Malcolm Canmore and William the Lion, A.D. 1070-1178.
b The S. is followed, here and throughout, by an unintelligible mark of abbreviation. The writer evidently intended to add, but in most cases did not know, the name of the Saint to whom each monastery was dedicated.
A letter is erased in each of these places.
LIVES OF SCOTTISH SAINTS, A. D. 850-1150.
1. S. Adriani (= Odran, according to Skene), Episcopi et Martyris (founder of a monastery in the island of May off the coast of Fife; called Bishop of S. Andrew's; martyred with his companions, Stolbrand, Geodianus, Caius, &c. by the Danes c. A.D. 870); from Brev. Aberdon. in Actt. SS. March 4, I. 326-328; Capgrave, N. L. A. 1: and see Stuart's Records of the Priory of the Isle of May, Edinb. 1868.
2. S. Cadroë, Abbatis (of Metz, but previously Prior of Walciodorus [Wassor in Lorraine]; son of Faiteach a Scotchman of royal lineage; preached in Scotland during the reign of Constantine son of Aodh [A.D. 900-943], before he went abroad; the only [Albanian] Scottish missionary on the Continent recorded; ob. c. A.D. 978): one, auct. anon., in Colgan, I. 494; another, auct. Reimanno sive Ousmanno, a contemporary monk of Gorz, in Mabill. Actt. SS. Ben. Sæc. V., VII. 482; Actt. SS. March 6, I. 474-481; and fragments in Pertz, Mon. Germ. Hist., VI. 483, 484.
3. S. Kennocha, Virginis (ob. A.D. 1007); from Brev. Aberdon., in Actt. SS. March 13, II. 338.
4. S. Margaretæ, Reginæ (ob. A.D. 1093); one by Ailred of Rievaulx (ob. A.D. 1166), abridged in Surius, June 10, II. 167 sq., ed. 1617; and Pinkerton, VV. SS. Scot. 371 sq.: another by Theodoric, confessor to the Queen, commonly but questionably assigned to Turgot afterwards Bishop of S. Andrew's (see Pref. to Hinde's ed. of Sim. Dunelm.), in Pinkerton, ib., 301 sq.; Actt. SS. June 10, II. 328-340; Appendix to Hinde's Sim. Dunelm., I. 234-254. See also Capgrave, N. L. A. 225.
5. S. Magni, Comitis (of the Orkneys, martyred there A.D. 1106 [?]), in Pinkerton, VV. SS. Scot. 385 sq.: also from Brev. Aberdon., in Actt. SS. April 16, II. 439–441.
6. S. Davidis, Regis [A.D. 1124-1153], Eulogium (ex Ailred. Riev. Geneal. Reg. Angl., Twysd. 347 sq.), in Pinkerton, VV. SS. Scot., 439 sq.
7. S. Walthevi (or Waltheni or Wallen), Abbatis (of Melrose, chosen Bishop of S. Andrew's A.D. 1159 [sc. on the death of Bishop Robert,
[LIVES OF SCOTTISH SAINTS, A.D. 850-1150.]
A.D. 1158 Chron. S. Crucis, A.D. 1159 Chron. de Mailros], but refused to accept the office; ob. A.D. 1159), auct. Jordano vel Joscelino Monacho Furnesiensi, in Actt. SS. Aug. 3, I. 241. See also Capgrave, N. L.
[There is also a legend of S. Dutbac of Ross, in Brev. Aberdon, and in Actt. SS. March 8, I. 799, 800, who is commonly placed in the 13th century, but is conjecturally identified by Dr. Reeves (Adamn. V. S. Col., Add. Notes, p. 401) with Dubhtach Albanach, ob. A.D. 1065 (see above, p. 154): and an article De S. Colmoco seu Colmo, Episcopo in Scotia, ob. A.D. 1000, in Actt. SS. June 6, I. 761.]