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Dr. O'Conor thought, but to a Welsh settlement in Ireland, viz. S. Canoc's monastery at
P. II, note b
Add from Palgrave's Doc. and Records Illustrative of Hist. of Scotl. (sc. cf. 19, 20 Edw. I. Nov. A.D. 1290-Nov. A.D. 1292), p. 70, the following extract from Chron., etc. transmitted to Edward by the Prior and Convent of Carlisle, no. 7.—“ A.D. 1069. Cumbria dicebatur, quantum modo est Epatus Karliolens. et Epatus Glasguens. et Epatus Candidecas., et insuper ab Epatu Karliol. usque ad flumen Dunde, &c. ibi in passu illo." P. 43, last line but one, for "1175" read “ 1176," and similarly on p. 44, line 2; and on p. 44, lines 8, 9, dele the words "the treaty of Falaise, and before;" and transfer the whole article after that dated " A.D. 1175. Aug. 17."
P. 50, note a.
For the words, "that in the text," read, "that of Pope Gregory."
Period I.—Until the Kingdom of Strathclyde was united to that of Scotland.
De Glesguensi [Episcopo] breviter intimandum, quod est antiquorum Britonum Episcopus; cujus Ecclesiæ Episcopus, sicut a majoribus natu illorum traditur, usque ad hæc Normannorum tempora vel ab Episcopo Scottorum vel Gualensium Britonum consecrari solebat.-RADULph., ArCHIEP. CANT., Epist. ad Calixtum Papam [Twysd. 1742, 1743.-A.D. 1119.]
Period II.—Until the Church of Cumbria was united, partly to that of Scotland, partly to that of England. A.D. 908-1188.
Successit in Ecclesia Glasguensi [A.D. 1258]. ... Johannes de Cheham, vir... Angliæ nimis infestus. Nam in ultimis diebus, crescente cupiditate, obtendebat jus antiquum in partes Westmorlandiæ in præjudicium Karliolensis Ecclesiæ, dicens usque ad Rer Cros in Staynmor ad diœcesim suam pertinere; ob quod animo efferatus, ad curiam Papæ festinavit, sed in eundo vita defecit.-CHRON. DE LANERCOST, in ann. 1258. [p. 65.]
CHURCH OF CUMBRIA OR
A. D. 600-1188.
PERIOD THE FIRST.
UNTIL THE KINGDOM OF STRATHCLYDE WAS UNITED TO THAT OF SCOTLAND, A.D. 600-908.
[A.D. 600-685. English Cumbria gradually severed from British dominion by Northumbrian conquest b; and Scottish Cumbria shut in west of the water-shed from Peel Fell to the Pentlands, and for some years prior to A.D. 685 subject altogether to Northumbria o.
A.D. 685-779. Scottish Cumbria again for a time independent, but further dismembered by Northumbrian conquest on the side of Galloway and Ayr, limited to the valley of the Clyde, and at length subdued again by Angles and Picts a.
A.D. 704. Cumbrians probably adopt the Roman Easter.
A.D. 803-870. Anglian rule ceases over Galloway, and perhaps, for a while, as far south as Carlisle. The Strathclyde princes possibly reclaim the district; but it was probably in a state of anarchy, and gradually occupied by colonists from north Ireland*.
A.D. 870-908. Strathclyde still an independent principality, but wasted by Northmen, and finally, by the election of King Donald to its throne, united to Scotland.]
a Cumbri, Cumbra-land, Combirland, Cumberland; Ystrat Clut, Strat Clut, Stræ-Clæd, Stratha-Cluaidh, etc. But "Strathclwyd Wealas," and the kindred names, as applied to the entire district from Clyde to " Loidis," only from about A.D. 871 (A. S. C., in an.).
Battle of Caerleon (Chester), A.D. 613: conquest of Elmet by Eadwin, A.D. 616: Loidis Northumbrian before A.D. 655 (B., III. 24): lands on the Ribble granted to Wilfrid, A.D. 666 x 669 (Edd. XVI.): Carlisle Northumbrian A.D. 684 (B., IV. 26), and given with Creke, Cartmel, "et omnes Britanni cum eo," to S. Cuthbert, A.D. 685 (Sim. Dun. 5, 69): Derwentwater Northumbrian A.D. 687 (B., IV. 29).
The Catrail or Pictswork ditch from Peel Fell to Galashiels, apparently the British boundary (Robertson, E. Scotl., I. 16): Bernicia reaches to the Forth and Eadwinsburgh by A.D. 633 (B., I. 34, II. 9): Melrose in Bernicia founded shortly after A.D 635 (B., in V. S. Cuthb.): Oswy's dominion reaches to Manann, A.D. 655 (Skene, Chron. cxvii); and to the Picts, A.D. 658 (B., III. 24, IV. 3): and Ecgfrith's, A.D. 670-685, also to the Britons of Strathclyde (Edd., XIX-XXI.; B., IV. 12, 26). On the Dalriad side, however, Donald Brec, King of Dalriada, defeated A.D. 638, and slain by the Britons at Strathcarron A.D. 642 (Ann. Tig.).
d" Pars Britonum nonnulla" (evidently of
[FOUNDATION OF SEE OF GLASGOW.]
Strathclyde) freed through battle of Nectansmere, A.D. 685 (B., IV. 26): but Cuningham Northumbrian, A.D. 696 (B., V. 12): and Whitherne with coast from Solway round to Ayrshire, before A.D. 731 (Anglian see of Whitherne, B., V. 25, and Anglian names along the coast): and Kyle, A.D. 750 (Auct. in fin. B.): and although the Picts are defeated A.D. 750 (Ann. Tig., Welsh Chron.), yet Alclwyd capitulates to Picts and Angles A.D. 756 (Sim. Dun. in M. H. B. 662, Welsh Chron., etc.), and is burned A.D. 779 (Ann. Ulton.). Saxon crosses at Thornhill on the Nith (mutilated), and at Ruthwell, both in Dumfriesshire (Stuart, Sculpt. Stones of Scotl. Pref., ix., and Arch. Scot., IV. ii. 312). Dalriad Scots also defeat the Britons, A D. 711 and 717 (Ann. Tig.). In English Cumbria, Saxon abbey on the Dacre, A.D. 728 (B., IV. 29. 32), and S. Bega said to have founded S. Bees before A.D. 700 (Leland, III. 39. But for S. Bega, see Tomlinson's ed. of her Life, Carlisle, 1842, and Actt. SS., Sept. 6, II. 694). Whalley on the Calder Northumbrian, A.D. 798 (AngloSax. Chron.).
Anglian see of Whitherne ends after A.D. 803: Galloway is of the Britons (“Galinne na mbretann"), A.D. 822 (Ann. Ulton.): Britons sack Dumblane after A D. 843 (Chron. in Skene 8): Cu of Strathclyde son-in-law to Kenneth of Scotland, A.D. 843 × 859 (Robertson, E. S., I. 41): Carlisle, however, claimed in A.D. 854 as Northumbrian since A.D. 685, and
certainly so A.D. 875 and probably also A.D. 883 (Sim. Dun. 13, 14; and M. H. B. 683): yet the permanence of its British name, and the existence of stone crosses, with interlaced Irish (?) ornamentation, at Muncaster, Gosforth, Beckermet S. Bridget's, Dearham, Rockcliffe, and Lanercost (Lysons, Cumb. CII.), i. e. on the west and north of the Cumberland mountains, indicate a probable Celtic connection still at this period. See for these, and for inscribed monuments, below, in Appendix A.
Olave and Ivor sack Alclwyd, A.D. 870 (Ann. Ult, and Camb., Chron. in Skene 405): Healfden from the Tyne wastes the Cumbri or Wealas of Strathclyde, A.D. 875 (A. S. C., Ethelw., Asser, Flor. Wig., Sim. Dun.): and those of them that "could not live with the
For the 12th century Lives of S. Kentegern, see vol. I. p. 157. His date is fixed by his connection with Rydderch King of Strathclyde ("Roderchus filius Tothail, qui in Petra Cluaithe regnavit," Adamn. in V. S. Columba), who is fixed by the genealogies to A.D. 573-601 (Skene, Chron. Pref. xcv.). And this agrees with the legendary connection between him and S. David, and again between him and S. Columba (with whom he exchanged staves, according to Jocelyn); and with the date above given for his death. His diocese must have been coextensive with Rydderch's kingdom, i. e. from Clyde to Mersey, and from the sea to the hills that form the watershed; and was therefore in the south conterminous with the diocese of S. Asaph (which during his temporary expulsion from Strathclyde he is said to have founded), and in the north included all that was
Saxons" (i. e. probably Danes, possibly Scots), found the Welsh Strathclyde, A.D. 890 (Brut Gwent.): Danes destroy Carlisle (which lies waste 200 years) about A.D. 892 (Sim. Dun. 217, Flor. Wig. in an. 1092). But up to the Derwent Northumbrian in A.D. 915 (Sim. Dun. 74). Eocha of Strathclyde joint King of Scotland A.D. 878-889: and Donald, brother of Constantine King of Scotland, elected King of Strathclyde, A.D. 908.
Immigration probably of Irish Cruithne at this time into Galloway (Robertson, E. S., I. 21, II. 382), where is certainly a mixed race and in great part Irish thenceforth. And a few Northmen settlements along the coast from the Solway (Id. ib., II. 437) into Wigtonshire.
Shortly before A.D. 600. Foundation of the See of Glasgow by
ANN. CAMB.-CLXVIII. Annus [A.D. 612], Conthigerni obitus. [M. H. B. 831.]
afterwards the diocese of Glasgow, and very possibly indeed extended from sea to sea (Jocel. V. S. Kenteg.). Accordingly he fixed his see at one time for eight years at Hoddam in Dumfriesshire; and churches are dedicated in his name in Cumberland, as at Crosthwaite; and at Borthwick, Penicuik, Crichton, and Currie, in Mid-Lothian (at the first of which last list of places he is also said to have set up a cross of sea sand, Jocel. ib.); as well as at Glasgow (where was a stone cross). Borthwick however (then called Locherworth or Locherwart) was one of the earliest gifts to the revived see in the time of David (Reg. Glasg. no. II), but Midlothian was not included within its then boundaries. Such a diocese would not be larger than the Saxon one which was as it were its counterpart a century after, and for which Wilfrid fought so tenaciously.