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[SEE OF GLASGOW FINALLY UNITED TO THE SCOTTISH CHURCH.]
tue seu priuilegiorum tuorum preiudicium a sede Apostolica apparuerit, nisi ex certa scientia impetratum, nullam habeat firmitatem. Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostre concessionis et confirmacionis infringere, uel ei ausu temerario contraire. Siquis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit, indignacionem omnipotentis Dei et beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum Eius nouerit se incursurum. Dat. Ver. V. kal. Julija. [I. 62.]
A like Bull, in purport, of Gregory IX., Perugia, May 25, A.D. 1235 (9th of Gregory's pontificate), is in Theiner, no. 79, p. 32 a. And one for the Scottish Bishops in general
preceded that in the text: see under the Scottish Church, and below, p. 58, under A.D. 1279.
A.D. 1188. March 13. Lateran. Bull of Pope Clement III. [declares the independence of the Scottish Church, and nominatim of the see of Glasgow, but omits Galloway in the list of Scottish sees. See under the Scottish Church.]
SEPULCHRAL CHRISTIAN INSCRIBED STONES, AND OTHER MONUMENTS, IN SCOTTISH AND ENGLISH CUMBRIA, A.D. 450–900.
I. BRITISH PERIOD, A.D. 450-700.
i. (5th century.) At Kirkmadrine, west side of the Bay of Luce, co. Wigton: three stones in the old churchyard:
a. On one, beneath the monogram (P enclosed in a circle (which is also on the other face of the stone),
HIC JACENT SCI ET PRECIPUI SACERDOTES ID EST
And above the monogram, A ET Q.
B. On the second (which has a like monogram within a circle), partly obliterated,
S ET FLORENTIUS.
7. The third has tracery, but no inscription.
The character of the letters and ornaments carries these inscriptions back to a still Romanized time, and also bears a resemblance to Gaulish monuments of the kind. They are probably of the 5th century, and belong to priests connected with S. Ninian himself, and through him with northwest Gaul. The Roman character of the names also tallies with this. See Stuart, Sculpt. Stones of Scotland, II. pp. 35, 36.
ii. (? 6th century; probably, however, later.) At Kirkinner, east side of the Bay of Luce, co. Wigton: two broken crosses, with tracery, in the churchyard; of the same peculiar character with that of the monuments of Whitherne, Kirkmaiden, and the neighbourhood. (Stuart, ib., p. 67.) ·
iii. iv. (? 6th century.) At Monreith House, near Kirkmaiden, east side of Bay of Luce, co. Wigton; and in the burying-ground surrounding the ruined church of Kirkmaiden: two broken crosses with interlaced work,
[CHRISTIAN INSCRIBED OR OTHER STONES IN SCOTTISH AND BRITISH CUMBRIA.] and crosses formed by circular holes, of like character with the foregoing. (Stuart, ib., pp. 50, 51, 67.)
v. vi. (? 6th century.) At Whitherne, two similar fragments. (Stuart, ib., pp. 51, 68.)
vii. (?6th century.) At Wigton, in the churchyard, a like fragment. (Stuart, ib., I. plate cxxii.)
viii. (? 6th century.) At Kirkmaiden, among the rocks of the sea-coast of the Bay of Luce, an oratory or stone chapel of S. Medan (an Irish virgin and disciple of S. Ninian) in a cave, like those in Cornwall and like one in Brittany. (Stuart, ib., II. p. 50, n.)
ix. At Kirkclaugh, near Anwoth, co. Kirkcudbright, a sculptured cross. (Stuart, ib., I. plate cxxiii.)
x. (7th century.) At Inchinnan, on the Clyde, seven miles below Glasgow, co. Renfrew: slabs, in the churchyard, with crosses, animals, and interlaced work; of Hiberno-Briton character. (Stuart, ib., II. p. 38.)
xi-xxi. (? 7th century.) At Govan, 'on the Clyde, immediately below Glasgow: a stone with tracery, a sarcophagus, and nine sepulchral slabs, found in the old churchyard, where are also many others: covered with either interlaced work, or crosses, or representations of animals: of a like character with the foregoing. (Stuart, ib., I. plates ci, cxxxiv-cxxxvii.)
xxii. (? 7th century.) At Hamilton, on the Clyde, a cross near Hamilton Palace, much defaced. (Stuart, ib., plate cxviii.)
xxiii. At Barrochan, parish of Kilallan (now in Houston), co. Renfrew, a cross. (Stuart, ib., plates cxv, cxvi.)
Both with interlaced work and figures.
xxiv. xxv. At Stanlie Green, near Paisley, co. Renfrew, and at Mountblow House, Kilpatrick, co. Dunbarton, slabs with like work. (Stuart, ib., plates cxvii, cxx.)
It will be observed, that these remains cluster round two centres, Whitherne (and westwards of Whitherne), Glasgow (and on the Clyde above and below Glasgow).
II. SAXON PERIOD, A.D. 700-800.
i. At Ruthwell, on the Solway Firth, near Dumfries and the mouth of the Nith an elaborate cross, in two parts, the lower 12 feet 6 inches, the whole 17 feet 6 inches, in height. On its two faces, tapering from 2 feet to 15 inches in breadth, are carved panels containing figures or groups of figures, some of them nimbed, with inscriptions in Roman letters
[CHRISTIAN INSCRIBED OR OTHER STONES IN SCOTTISH AND BRITISH CUMBRIA.] surrounding them: viz., on one side at the top, 1. a human figure with a bird, with VERBUM IN PRINa (supposed to mean Verbum in principio), now however effaced, and some nearly effaced Runes round it; 2. an archer with bow and arrow; 3. two figures embracing, with a nearly illegible inscription, of which.. TOPSEN.. is all that can be read on one side, and on the other. . INCOBD . . ; 4. the woman that was a sinner, washing our Lord's feet, with ATTVLIT ALABASTRVM VNGVENTI ET STANS RETROSECUS PEDES EIVS LACRIMIS COEPIT RIGARE PEDES EIVS ET CAPILLIS CAPITI SVI TERGEGBAT (partly, however, defaced); 5. two figures, supposed to be our Lord healing the blind man, with ET PRAETERIENS VIDIT *** A NATIBITATE ET S** B INFIRMITA *; 6. the Annunciation (probably), with INSRESSVS ANGELVS *** TE * IRN * * (remainder effaced). On the opposite side, 1. at the top, a bird perched upon a branch, with undecipherable Runes surrounding it; 2. two human figures; 3. a figure standing on two globes and holding a lamb in its arms, the inscription undecipherable, except the word [A]DORAMVS; 4. a nimbed figure, probably of our Lord, with one hand raised as if to bless, and round the panel, IHS XPS IVDEX AEQVITATIS SERTO SALVATOREM MVNDI BESTIAE ET DRACONES COGNOVERVNT IN DE * * 5. two figures, supposed to be SS. Peter and Paul breaking a loaf of bread between them, from an anecdote in S. Jerome's Life of S. Antony, and round them, SCS PAVLVS ET A *** FREGERVNT PANEM IN DESERTO; 6. the Blessed Virgin holding the Child Jesus in her arms and riding on an ass, with what is supposed to have been the head of Joseph in the corner-inscription defaced, except MARIA ET IO * *. But the most remarkable part of the cross are its edges-tapering from about 15 inches in width to 11-upon which are interlaced patterns and figures between borders, and upon these a series of Runes, deciphered by Mr. Kemble, so far as they were not defaced, into passages from an Anglo-Saxon poem, which poem (filling up all the lacunæ and tallying with the deciphered passages) was subsequently discovered in a Vercelli MS., and is conjecturally dated in the 7th century, about the time of Cadmon; its subject being the "Dream of the Holy Rood." No name is on the monument; unless that Professor Stephens now reads some of the Runes into "Cadmon me fawed" = "Cædmon made me." (Stuart, Sculpt. Stones, II. pp. 12-16. See also G. Stephens, Old Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, II. 419-422.)
ii. At Thornhill, in Nithsdale, co. Dumfries: a cross with interlaced work and animals, which possibly may belong to the earlier period. (Stuart, ib., I. plate cxxi.)
[CHRISTIAN INSCRIBED OR OTHER STONES IN SCOTTISH AND BRITISH CUMBRIA.]
iii. At Durisdeer, in Nithsdale, co. Dumfries: a fragment of a cross, of the like character in its ornament with the Bewcastle and other English crosses. (Stuart, ib., II. p. 73-)
iv. At Hoddam, in Annandale, co. Dumfries, one also of S. Kentegern's temporary sees: fragments and crosses with interlaced ornaments and nimbed figures under canopies, but no inscriptions. (Stuart, ib., PP. 33, 34.)
v. At Whitherneb, two fragments of crosses supposed to be of Saxon date; on one of them, LOCI T I PETRI APVSTOLI, and above it the monogram added to the upper limb on the right hand of the (inscribed) cross. (Stuart, ib., p. 53, and plate lxxvii.)
vi. At Bewcastle, co. Cumberland: an elaborate cross, with ornamentation of running foliage with birds and animals, like that at Ruthwell, also with figures, and several inscriptions in Runic letters; the meaning of which is much disputed, but one of them is supposed to mention the death of King Alcfrid of Northumbria, A.D. 664. See a short account of the principal pamphlets and interpretations in Stuart, ib., pp. 16-18.
vii. At Jedburgh, co. Roxburgh: a slab with ornamentation of Saxon date. Other fragments of crosses of like date exist there also. ib., pp. 66, 67c.)
These monuments belong to the localities that were most entirely Saxonized, and connect themselves with like monuments in Lindisfarne or Hexham dioceses, as at Jarrow, at Hexham itself, etc. etc.
This might be ERIN, so far as appears by the stone itself.
b Sir J. Y. Simpson suggested that the first letters of the inscription should be read, LOC STI, &c. A bell existed also at Whitherne in the 17th century, with an inscription in Saxon
letters in honour of S. Martin. (Stuart, ib., p. 68.)
According to Fordun, II. 96, a magnificent cross was dug up at Peebles A.D. 1260, which bore the inscription of "Locus [or Loculus] Sancti Nicholai Episcopi."
III. NORTHMAN AND IRISH PERIOD, A.D. 800-900.
i. At Dearham, co. Cumberland: a work, resembling that on Manx crosses.
cross with figures and interlaced (Stuart, ib., p. 18.)
ii. At Gosforth, near Wastdale, co. Cumberland: an elaborate cross, of the same character with that at Dearham; also some fragments of crosses, like the Northumbrian examples. (Stuart, ib., plates 24, 25, 28.)
iii. At Kirkcolm, co. Wigton, on the west coast of Loch Ryan, in the midst of churches with Irish dedications: a stone having the Crucifixion and several symbols of the Passion on one side, and on the other a short