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Of course it was speedily encroached upon by Northumbrian conquest, beginning almost within a year or two of S. Kentegern's death. The cathedral was, as usual, near, but not at, the civil capital, Alclwyd or Dumbarton, viz. at Glasghu" or "Deschu," formerly called "Cathures" (Jocelyn). If S. Monenna (ob. A.D. 517, according to Reeves, Adamn. 177) really built a church, among other places in Scotland, at "Chil-ne-case, in Galuveic" (Life in Ussher, Antiq. Brit. Ecc., Works, VI. 249); whether this was (as is probable) Whithern itself, or Kilcaiss (now Kincase) in the parish of Prestwick in Kyle, co. Ayr (Chalm. Caled., III. 496, see also above in vol. I. pp. 120, 121); S. Kentegern may well have sought to restore S. Ninian's decayed but scarcely extinct church

(so Jocelyn), only transferring the centre of his preaching to the neighbourhood of the new capital. Later boundaries (as those implied in the "Inquisitio Davidis," about A.D. 1120, or in the claims of the Bishops of Glasgow at that period, or assumed in Jocelyn's Life belonging to the same period, or alleged in the tracts on the English claims upon the Scotch side in Skene, one of which confounds Glasgow with Galwidia, Skene 255, as does also Fordun, XI. 52) belong really to the revived 10th century principality of Strathclyde or Cumbria. Kentegern's staff, as said to have been given to him by Columba, was exhibited in Ripon Minster in the end of the 14th century (Fordun, III. 30; Reeves's Adamnan, 324).

A.D. 666 × 669. Lands granted to Wilfrid in Lancashire.

EDDIUS, V. W., XVII.-Erat quippe Deo placabile donum, quod religiosi Reges tam multas terras Deo ad serviendum pontifici nostro conscripserunt. Et hæc sunt nomina regionum, juxta Rippela, et in Gaedyne, et in regione Dunitinga, et in Caetlevum, in cæterisque locis. [ed. Gale, p. 60.]

"i. e. Hacmundernes " (Life of W. in Leland, Collect., III. 169), which was the district of Lancashire between the Ribble and the

Cocker. See also above in vol. I. pp. 124, 125.

A.D. 680. Council of Rome. Wilfrid claims to answer for the Catholic faith of the Britons, Scots, and Picts, as well as Angles, dwelling in "the northern part of Britain and of Hibernia and in the Islands." [See below, vol. III. p. 140, under the Anglo-Saxon Church.]

a The words of Wilfrid's subscription to the Council scarcely mean that he claimed to be Bishop of those for whose faith he pledged himself. Yet for some years after A.D. 670, and up to A.D. 685, the Britons of Strathclyde and some of the Picts beyond the Forth certainly, and on one interpretation of an ambiguous sentence in Bede (IV. 26) the Dalriad Scots also, were subject to the Northumbrian King (see above, p. 3, note ©). And Wilfrid would be certain to claim a diocese coextensive with the Northumbrian kingdom, even to its most recent or temporary conquests; as he did, e. g., on the south of the Humber in the case of Lindsey. The statement therefore of Richard of Hexham (see below under A.D. 685, note) may have a foundation of truth in it. That he really as Bishop exercised actual authority over Britons or

Scots or Picts, is improbable; especially considering that none of the three, nor yet the northern Irish, had adopted the Roman customs in A.D. 680. Trumwine, however, at Abercorn, for the few years he was there, probably had something more than the mere name of Bishop over the Picts within his jurisdiction. The conquest of Cuningham by the Northumbrians in A.D. 696 implies also that Anglian conquest had been creeping round Galloway for some time before; having certainly included Carlisle before A.D. 685, although no doubt checked in that year for the moment by Ecgfrith's defeat and death. And both northern and southern Cumbria were still probably Briton in the bulk of their population. So that here again Wilfrid certainly had Britons within his diocese.


A.D. 685. English Cumbria taken from Glasgow and united (in part) to the See of Lindisfarne".

SIM. DUN. Hist. S. Cuthb.-Rex Ecgfridus et Theodorus Archiepiscopus dederunt S. Cuthberto villam quæ vocatur Creca; .... et quia videbatur parva terra, adjecit civitatem quæ vocatur Luel [i. e. Carlisle], quæ habet in circuitu quindecim milliaria, et in eadem civitate posuit congregationem sanctimonialium, et abbatissam ordinavit, et scholas constituit. Postquam vero S. Cuthbertus suscitavit puerum a mortuis in villa quæ vocatur Exanforda, dedit ei Rex Ecgfridus terram quæ vocatur Cartmel et omnes Britanni cum ea, et villam illam quæ vocatur Suth-Gedluyt, etc. [Twysd. 69: see also ib. 5.]

a Ecgfrith completed what his predecessors had been gradually doing (see above, p. 3, note). But Wilfrid in A.D. 666 x 669 would seem to have obtained the southern part of English Cumbria, i. e. the lands on the Ribble, etc., for Ripon, i. e. for York (Edd. XVII.). And although Lindisfarne did not then exist except as the substitute for York, viz. not until A.D. 678, yet what was afterwards Lancashire would appear to have continued permanently as part of the more limited diocese of York, even after that year. For like encroachments further north, and on Scottish Cumbria, during this period, see p. 3, note. These would have been reckoned to Lindisfarne or York, as the only Saxon see north of Humber during that time, until A.D. 678: and either to Lindisfarne, as separate from York, from A.D. 678 [except so far as the short-lived see of Trumwine at Abercorn (A.D. 681-685) may have included part of the Lothians and the northern part of Bernicia as well as his more proper Pictish flock; and, further, from the Forth only so far southward as to the Alne, the latter river separating Lindisfarne from the newly-formed

see of Hexham (Rich. Hagust. c. V.)]; or again, from the Alne to the Tees, to Hexham, which last diocese reached west into modern Cumberland as far as to Wetherall on the Eden (Rich. Hagust., ib.), but (as appears from Sim. Dun., above) no further. Hexham see came to an end in A.D. 821. The (possible) see of Ripon with its one (possible) Bishop, Eadhæd, from A.D. 681, would apparently have claimed, if it ever existed, some part of the more southern British spoils. Rich. Hagust., c. VI. (as is said above), includes the " Britones," i. e. some at least of those of Strathclyde, in Wilfrid's original and undivided diocese of York; and also the "Scots of Lindisfarne" and the "Picts " (whom he of course supposed to have lived in Galloway at that time) of Candida Casa. But in the first, as certainly in the last case, he probably wrote after the belief, and the disputes, of his own time. See above, under A.D. 680.

b"Suth-Gedling," in App. II. p. 231, to Hinde's ed. of Sim. Dun.

A.D. 697. ANN. TIG.-Molingus Luachraensis monasterii abbas obiit, i. e. inter Britones. [O'Conor, II. 219.]

i. e. either in Iona or in Strathclyde.

A.D. 704. The Strathclyde Britons apparently adopt the Roman Easter a.

BAD. H. E., V. 15.-Quo tempore plurima pars Scottorum in


Hibernia, et nonnulla etiam de Brittonibus in Brittania, rationabile et ecclesiasticum Paschalis observantiæ tempus Domino donante suscepit. [M. H. B. 265.]

a The death of Adamnan, with whose efforts to bring Iona to adopt the Roman Easter the above statement is connected, brings the date to A.D. 704 (see Lappenberg, Anglo-Sax., I. Pref. xxxvi. n.). And this excludes all other Britons except those of Strath

clyde, who are also naturally connected with their neighbour Adamnan. The Britons of Damnonia are mentioned separately by Bede (V. 18). And Aldhelm's letter, by which these were (partially) converted, appears to be dated in A.D. 705. See also below, under A.D. 721.

A.D. 721. A Bishop of Strathclyde (?) at a Roman Councila.

CONC. ROM. SUB GREGORIO II. (subscriptt.).—Sedulius, Episcopus Britanniæ de genere Scottorum, huic constituto a nobis promulgato subscripsi. [Labb., VI. 1458.]

• An Irishman by name and nation might well be Bishop of Glasgow or Strathclyde in A.D. 721. And the nationality and the locality of Sedulius' companion, and therefore probably neighbour Fergustus Episcopus Scotia Pictus"-certainly suggest Strathclyde as the "Britannia" which was his see. His presence at Rome also proves the schism ended,

as regards the "Britannia" which he represented. And he was therefore neither Cornish nor Welsh, i. e. he was Cumbrian or of Strathclyde. There is no reliable evidence of dioceseless Bishops among the Britons: see above, in vol. I. p. 143: although in A.D. 721, Fergustus, a Pictish Bishop among the Scots, probably was in that condition.

A.D. 730-803. Anglian See of Whitherne or Candida Casa a. BÆD. H. E., V. 23.-Pecthelm in ea [Ecclesia], quæ Candida Casa vocatur, [præsulatum tenet]; quæ nuper, multiplicatis fidelium plebibus, in sedem pontificatus addita, ipsum primum habet antistitem. [M. H. B. 284.]

■ Bede writes this in A.D. 731; but the conquest of Cuningham in A.D. 696, and the probabilities of the case, show that Northumbrians had penetrated along the western side of Strathclyde some forty years before. They had now become numerous enough to require a separate Bishop; having no doubt belonged to Lindisfarne previously, and perhaps to Wilfrid when at York (see above, p. 5, note a). But Wilfrid's Picts were of course those of whom Trumwine had charge, not any imaginary Picts of Galloway at this period. That Trumwine's see was Abercorn and not Candida Casa, and that he ruled over Picts north of the Forth, and not over Galloway, is plain by Bede, in spite of the list at the end of some MSS. of Flor. Wig. There is a tradition in Rich. Hagust., c. XV., that Acca Bishop of Hexham, upon quitting that see in

A.D. 732-733, "Episcopalem sedem in Candida Casa inceperit et præparaverit." Pecthelm (see S. Bonif. Epist. 39. Würdtw., below in vol. III. p. 310) died A.D. 735, and was succeeded in the same year by Frithwald (Flor. Wig.); and Acca's successor at Hexham was consecrated in A.D. 734, although he himself survived until A.D. 740: so that the story must remain unexplained, if it is to be accepted at all. The Anglian succession at Candida Casa lasted until Badulf or Baldwulf or Bealdwlf, the last Bishop (W. Malm. G. P. A., III.), who certainly lived until A.D. 803 (Sim. Dun.). Heathored, who follows him in the so-called Florence's list, is obviously a confusion with a Bishop of Lindisfarne in A.D. 821, of the same name, who is omitted by that list in his right place. How far attempts were made to perpetuate the succession after Badulf does



not appear. Very possibly Heathored of Lindisfarne may have tried to join or rejoin the see to his own. Eardulf of Lindisfarne took refuge at Candida Casa when wandering with S. Cuthbert's relics in A.D. 875-883. Northmen ravages and Pictish immigration, and possibly British reconquest, must have ended any Anglian Episcopate there, and probably any Episcopate at all. That recourse was had between Badulf and Gilla-Aldan to Norwegian Bishops or Bishops of Man or of the Isles, is only conjecture, although not improbable. There is nothing to identify certain suffragans of York, named without their sees in A.D. 929-934, and belonging to no known succession, e. g. Earnulf, Columban,

Ælfric, Æscbert, Eadwald, Sexhelm (K., C. D.), with any then still existing Anglian see of Candida Casa. That see of course was enlarged or diminished according to the progress of Northumbrian conquest; and at its largest must have included far more than the revived see of the 12th century. The latter was coextensive probably with the lordship of Galloway, and certainly with Kirkcudbright(Church of S. Cuthbert) west of the river Urr, and Wigtonshire. The former included also Ayrshire (see above, p. 4, noted) and most probably Dumfriesshire (so it would seem by the crosses mentioned in the same note, and by the probabilities of the case).

A.D. 782 x 80+ a. Letter of Alcuin to the Monks of Whitherne. ALCUINUS, ad Fratres S. Niniani Candida Case.-Venerande dilectionis fratribus in loco Deo servientibus qui dicitur Candida Casa, ALCUINUS DIACONUS, salutem. Deprecor vestræ pietatis unanimitatem, ut nostri nominis habeatis memoriam, et intercedere pro mea parvitate dignemini in ecclesia sanctissimi patris nostri Nynia Episcopi, qui multis claruit virtutibus, sicut mihi nuper delatum est per carmina metricæ artis, quæ nobis per fideles nostros discipulos Eboracensis Ecclesiæ scholasticos directa sunt; in quibus et facientis agnovi eruditionem, et ejus perficientis miracula sanctitatem, per ea quæ ibi legebam. Quapropter obnixius deprecor, ut sanctis orationibus vestris illius me precibus commendare studeatis, quatenus per ejusdem patris vestri piissimas preces et vestræ karitatis assiduas intercessiones peccatorum meorum veniam, Deo Christo miserante, accipere merear; et ad sanctorum pervenire consortia, qui sæculi labores fortiter vicerunt, et ad coronam perpetuæ laudis pervenerunt. Direxi ad sancti patris nostri Nyniga corpus suumb olosericum ob memoriam nostri nominis, ut illius atque vestram piam merear intercessionem habere


Protegat atque regat Christi vos dextera fratres. [Cott. MSS. Vesp. A. 14, fol. 160; and, partly, Opp. I. 297, Froben.]

a Alcuin went to France A.D. 782, and died A.D. 804.

b? velum.

A.D. 854. Eardulf of Lindisfarne still claims Carlisle as within

his Diocese.

SIM. DUN. Hist. Dun. Eccl., II. 5.—Eardulfus,

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tificalis [Lindisfarne] gubernacula suscepit, nec minorem quam

[CUMBERLAND AND GALLOWAY STILL REGARDED AS ANGLIAN.] proximis Lindisfarnensium quibusque longe positis Episcopatus sui locis pastoralis curæ sollicitudinem impendebat; quorum Luel, quod nunc Carleol appellatur, non solum proprii juris Sancti Cuthberti fuerat, sed etiam ad sui Episcopatus regimen ab Egfridi Regis temporibus semper adjacebat. [Twysd. 13.]

A.D. 875 × 883. Cumberland and possibly Whitherne still seemingly regarded as Anglian.

SIM. DUN. Hist. Dun. Eccl., II. 11, 12.-Ergo ad hostium fluminis quod Dyrwenta vocatur, omnes simul a, Episcopus et abbas et populus, conveniunt.—And again—Per id quippe temporis, in locum, qui Candida Casa vulgo autem Witerna vocatur, devenerant. [Twysd. 18, 19, 20.b]

Eardulf Bishop of Lindisfarne and Eadred abbat of Carlisle, after wandering with S. Cuthbert's relics through "tota pene provincia," resolved to embark at the mouth of the Derwent, and transport them to Ireland,-were driven back by a storm, losing overboard S. Cuthbert's gilt and gemmed MS. of the Gos

pels, and after a time came to Whitherne, where the MS. is found unhurt on the shore.

The next mention of S. Ninian's is the legendary statement, that Kenneth II. of Scotland, who began to reign A D. 970, made a pilgrimage thither. He certainly conquered the district (Chron. in Skene, p. 10).

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