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II. 14). And the same Oswald, A.D. 1388, May 5, has a protection as "Bishop of Galway" from King Richard, he having fled into England. "pro salvatione vitæ suæ" (ib. 98). And thenceforth we find him in York only: viz. A.D. 1389, Dec. 13, Oswald Bishop of Candida Casa ordains for the Archbishop of York "in capella B. Mariæ et SS. Angelorum" (Reg. Arundel, Hutton MSS. Harl. 6969): A.D. 1392. Nov. 11 (Fest. S. Martini), he grants indulgence of 40 days to all who pray at S. Andrew's church, Newcastle, but as anno nostræ consecrationis 12" (Brand, Hist. of Newcastle, I. 179), which does not tally with his being consecrated (as he almost certainly was) by the Pope abroad before March, A.D. 1379: A.D. 1397, April 6 (Reg. Waldby, Hutton, ib.), and again A.D. 1398, Jan. 9 (York Reg. Galba E. 10), he has a commission to act as suffragan in York. diocese; in the former case," in absentia Archiepiscopi, ad dedicand.," etc. : and A.D. 1398, March 2, he ordains in S. Martin's church, York; April 6, in the Carmelites' church, York; June 1, in S. Michael's le Belfry, York (Galba E. 10): and A.D. 1406, April 3, "deputatur suffraganeus Dunelmensi sede vacante" (Reg. Scrope, in Hutton MSS., Bishop Skirlaw of Durham being just dead).

Meanwhile the Scottish succession was obviously kept up without regard to Oswald, whom the Scottish Church must have regarded as an intruder thrust into the see by the Pope whom they did not recognise. For we find a Bishop

ELISEUS, A.D. 1405-1414 or 1415.

A.D. 1405. Eliseus was consecrated to the see of Candida Casa, inasmuch as he calls A.D. 1412 "the seventh year" of his consecration (in a charter quoted by Keith from Reg. Chart., A.D. 1413); and probably therefore he was succeeded immediately by—

THOMAS, A.D. 1414 or 1415-1420 X 1426.

Who, A.D. 1416, March 17, Perth, 22nd year of (the Antipope) Benedict XIII., testifies among the other Scottish Bishops, etc., to an inspeximus of Edward II.'s resignation, anno 2 of his reign, of his claim to the Scottish crown (Acts of Parl. of Scotl., I. 226; Reg. Glasg. p. 310): and A.D. 1420, July 16, Perth, assists at a general Council of the Scottish Church (Reg. Brechin., I. 39, etc., in Keith): and who would appear therefore to have been succeeded immediately by—

ALEXANDER VAUS, A.D. 1420 X 1426-1444 × 1451.

Who A.D. 1426 is Bishop of Candida Casa (Reg. Chart. in an., ap. Keith), and A.D. 1429, May 25, is appointed by James I. of Scotland

VOL. 11.



one of the Conservators of Peace on the Borders; and June 15 is sent as ambassador into England (Rym., X. 417), and July 12 acts as Conservator aforesaid (ib. 428); and A.D. 1444 is still Bishop (Reg. Chart. in Keith) but resigns before A.D. 1451: in which year we find―

THOMAS SPENS, A.D. 1444 × 1451-1459.

For A.D. 1451, July 5, Thomas Spens, Bishop of “Candida Casa" (or again" of Whithern," and "vulgariter de Galway nuncupatus"), has letters of safe-conduct from Henry VI. of England to go to Newcastle and Durham (Rym., XI. 286), and July 27 is appointed ambassador to England by James II. of Scotland (ib. 287), and Aug. 13 and 14 acts in that capacity (ib. 288, 293), and Oct. 9 has a safe-conduct to come to England (ib. 303); and also in A.D. 1451 grants a charter (Reg. Chart. and Reg. Episc. Morav. in Keith) and A.D. 1453, "anno regn. Jac. II. 18," is still Bishop (Invent. Aberdon. in Keith); and A.D. 1454, April 14, Edinburgh, attests a grant of James II. to Melrose (Lib. de Mailros, I. 589-an indulgence granted to S. Cuthbert's Melrose by a Bishop of C. C. unnamed, in some unnamed year of James II. [ib. 570], may also be his); and is also still Bishop A.D. 1454. Oct. 22, and in 1458 (Reg. Chart. in Keith); but between Aug. 24, A.D. 1458 (when the see of Aberdeen became vacant), and April, A.D. 1459, is postulated to Aberdeen.

NINIAN, A.D. 1459-1479 × 1483.

A.D. 1459, April 27, 23rd Jac. II., letters patent appoint Ninian to the see of Candida Casa (Keith); and July 13, "Ninianus Episcopus de Galloway" has safe-conduct from Henry VI. to come to England (Rym., XI. 423) and in A.D. 1476 he is still Bishop (Acts of Parl. of Scotl., II. 113, not however naming him; Chart. de Sanct. Crucis, pp. 147, 148). But

A.D. 1472, Aug. 17a, a Bull of Pope Sixtus IV. erects St. Andrew's into a metropolitan see, and archiepiscopate, having all the Scottish Bishoprics, including Galloway, as its suffragans: the Archbishop of York of the time renewing his claim to the subjection of all the Scottish Bishops, but fruitlessly (Buchanan, lib. XII., Opp., I. 226).

From the above it is evident, that Michael (ob. A.D.1359) was the last Bishop of Whitherne whose profession to the see of York is on record: that Thomas his successor (ob. A.D. 1362) was consecrated by the Pope, who however thought it fitting to write to the Archbishop of York on the


occasion that Adam, who came next (ob. A.D. 1369 × 1373), was also probably consecrated by the Pope, but that both he and all his successors (with one exception) were obviously Scottish altogether and had nothing at all to do with York; although in A.D. 1379, there being a Pope and an Antipope, the former intruded Bishop Oswald into the see, already filled by a Bishop in communion with the latter; and Oswald, so intruded, being obliged in A.D. 1388 to fly for his life to England, acted thenceforth as a suffragan of York, the Scottish line being kept up in entire disregard of his existence : lastly, that a final protest or complaint was made in vain in A.D. 1472 by the see of York, but with reference to all the Scottish Bishoprics, and not to Galloway in particular.

From the "Historia Ordinis SS. Trinitatis ad annum 1296 continuis Catalog. Cœnob. ejus Ordin. in Scotia," in Hay's Diplomataa (MS., Advocates' Library, Edinb.), vol. III. p. 579.

Anno autem 1256 extructum est patribus Trinitariis cœnobium Brechinense in Scotia ab Edwardo ejusdem civitatis Episcopo; deinde a B. Francisco Ramiseo, qui in eodem ordine monachatum subiit, multis possessionibus ditatum anno 1362. Idemque Franciscus ob singularem integritatem et vitæ innocentiam Episcopatu Case Candide honestatus est in hunc modum. Anno a partu Virginis 1373, octavo Kalendas Aprilis, obiit David Douglassius ejus sedis antistes; et sub obitum author fuit clero ac populo, ut dictum patrem Franciscum ordinis Trinitarii monachum successorem sibi in Episcopatu designarent. Nihilo tamen minus clerus Candide Case, corruptus largitionibus cujusdam Jacobi Caarron [sic], qui eandem sedem ambiebat, rejecto Francisco, eum Episcopum designarunt: sed non volente eventu. Nam Jacobus, altera die post sui consecrationem, caldissima febre correptus vite usuram desperavit. Et agnoscens morbum sibi a Deo vindice immissum ob Episcopatum nefario modo occupatum, ipsum Franciscum protinus accersivit. Qui cum adesset, [et] infirmum antistitem aqua cui ipse benedixit adspersisset, protinus eum molestia febris liberavit. Propter que alter sanitati restitutus Episcopatum Francisco resignavit: quod, factum in Scotia, Rome deinde Gregorius undecimus confirmavit pontificatus sui anno tertio. Unde beatus Franciscus sedem illam viginti novem annis magno sui laude administravit. Tandem morte absumptus anno Domini 1402, Kal. Octobris, sepultus est in sua ecclesia, etc. a

This work, which is a collection of transcripts, was formed by Richard Augustine Hay, canon regular of S. Genéviéve, about the

beginning of the 18th century. The MS. is now in the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh.



A.D. 1318, Feb. 1, Archbishop Melton of York writes to B. Cardinal deacon of S. Mary in Aquiro, on behalf of John Bishop of Glasgow, who on account of the war dares not visit his diocese, and is for that reason in great poverty; and the same John of Glasgow, called once John de Ecclesclif, and once Friar John de Ecclesfeld, is on four occasions employed by Archbishop Melton as a suffragan (Histor. Papers, &c. from Northern Registers, 299, 300). John Bishop of Glasgow, who must have been the York Bishop, assisted also at the consecration of Roger of Lichfield at Hales Abbey, June 27, A.D. 1322. And a grant, which must be his, to Holyrood Abbey, March 1, 1322, is among the Holyrood Charters, pp. 186-188. "Frater Johannes de Eglesclif de ordine Predicatorum, consecratus in curia Romana, venit ad dyocesim suam Landav. octavis Sancte Trinitatis [May 29] anno Domini 1323, et obiit apud Lancadwaladwr, viz. iio die mensis Januarii anno Domini [1344, miswritten 1306], et sepultus est in ecclesia Fratrum Predicatorum de Kerdyf" (MS. additions to the Owston MS. of the Lib. Landavensis). John of Egglescliffe is stated to have been Bishop of Bethlehem in partibus, in the first instance (Gallia Christ., XII. 690; Hibern. Dominicana, c. 13): but he was really consecrated to Glasgow in the place of Robert Wiseheart deceased, by Nicolas Bishop of Ostia, at Avignon; see the Bull dated XVI. kal. Aug. A.D. 1318 (Theiner, 202). As Bishop of Glasgow he has letters from Edward II. dated July 19, A.D. 1319 (Rymer, III. 401). Robert Bruce objected to him as an Englishman, and was answered by the Pope, Aug. 18, A.D. 1320 (Rymer, III. 432); and in A.D. 1323, Mar. 15, he was translated to Connor (Theiner, 226), and June 20, to Llandaff (Reg. Reynolds). The Llandaff scribe, apparently, knew nothing of John of Egglescliffe's previous Glasgow and Irish Episcopates.

John Lindsey was appointed Bishop of Glasgow in his place, Mar. 15, A.D. 1323 (Theiner, 226).








A. D. 387-818.


A. D. 569-830.

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