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I. Misit [Oudoceus Episcopus Landavensis (c. A.D. 600) Guidnerth Regem Gwentiæ] in peregrinationem ad Archiepiscopum Dolensem, ... propter veteranam amicitiam et cognitionem quam sancti patres habuerant antecessores sui inter se, ... et propter aliam causam, eo quod ipse Guidnerth et Brittones et Archiepiscopus illius terræ essent unius linguæ et unius nationis, quamvis dividerentur spatio terrarum.-[LIB. LANDAV. 172.]
Notandum quia in Nordwallia (Venedotia) lingua Britannica delicatior et ornatior et laudabilior est, quanto alienigenis terra illa impermixtior esse perhibetur: Cornubienses vero et Armoricani Britonum lingua utuntur fere persimili, Cambris tamen propter originem et convenientiam in multis adhuc et fere cunctis intelligibili; quæ quanto delicata minus et incomposita, magis tamen antiquo linguæ Britannica idiomati, ut arbitror, appropriata. [GIR. CAMBR., Descript. Cambr., I. 6. A.D. 1215.]
II. Transnavigare maria terrasque spatiosas transmeare non tam piget [Britannos sacerdotes] quam delectat.-[GILDAS, M. H. B. 31, c. A.D. 560.]
BRITISH CHURCHES ABROAD.
I. BRITISH CHURCHES IN ARMORICA UNTIL THE SUPPRESSION OF
[A.D. 387. Colony of Maximus' soldiers from Britain (Nenn. Gild.). A.D. 409-502. Independent Armorican state, under a "King of the Britons "." c. A.D. 450. Immigration of (Christian) Britons fleeing from Saxon invasion (V. Gild. in Bibl. Floriac. and V. S. Winwaloëi).
A.D. 461. First mention of a Bréton Bishop.
A.D. 502. Brittany henceforth claimed as subject to the suzerainty of the Franks ©, although practically independent; and its rulers called "Comites" instead of "Reges" (Greg. Tur., IV. 3).
A.D. 512. Further immigration of Britons 4: Bishoprics founded for them by Childebert at Léon, and perhaps at Dol, irrespectively of the Archbishopric of Tours. A.D. 541-590. Differences about Easter.
A.D. 561, 566, etc. Further immigration of Britons, in connection with SS. Maclovius, Maglorius, etc.
A.D. 561. Vannes occupied by the Franks until A.D. 753.
A.D. 567. Metropolitanship of Tours over Armorica asserted in a council of Tours. A.D. 600-700. Frank supremacy powerful over nearly all Brittany (so that in Eastern Brittany the people ceased to use the British language, Courson, p. 256). A.D. 612 × 632. Cadwallon of Wales takes refuge with Duke Salomon; and, A.D. 664 x 689, Cadwallader with Alan.
A.D. 635. Judicael, "Rex Brittannorum," submits himself and his kingdom to Dagobert at Creil (Fredegar. 78; V. S. Elig. Noviom).
A.D. 753. Brétons recover Vannes, but are driven out again by Pipin (Ann. Metens.), who appoints" Counts of the British March" (among others, Roland). A.D. 786, 799, 811. Brittany overrun by Andulfus, "Senescallus" of Charlemagne,
by Wido Count of the British March, and yet again by a third army of Charlemagne (Eginhard; Regin. Abb.; Conc. Wurm. A.D. 786; Ann. S. Nazar., Franc., Xantens.).
A.D. 818. Brittany again overrun by Ludov. Pius (Eginbard, Ermold. Nigell.), who
also puts down there the British monastic rule and tonsure'.]
[FIRST BRETON BISHOP.]
a Armorica (Lez-ar-mor, Littus Maris) = at first the whole northern and north-western seaboard of Gaul up to the confines of (modern) Belgium (Cæs. De B. G., VII. 75, and see Rot. Scacc. Normann., ed. Stapleton, I. xxxviii.); in the 5th century, North-western Gaul from Loire to Seine, then independent; subsequently restricted to the territory of the British immigrations, i. e. at first to the triangle marked by Cruc-Ucbidient - Ushant to the west, the bay to the north of Mons Jovis or Mont-S. Michel (Gall. Christ., XII. 472) to the north-east, and Cantguic or Condivicnum (precisely) Corbilo, two leagues below Nantes, on the Loire (Courson, 199), to the south-east (Nenn., and especially the Irish Nennius, with Herbert's Append. X.): its eastern boundary being the Vilaine, the Rance, and the Forêt Brékilien (Courson, 200):-thus excluding, from probably the time of Clovis, Nantes and Rennes (Venant. Fortun., Carm. III. iii. 7, and vi. 41; Greg. Tur., V. 27, IX. 18, 24, X. 9; and De Mirac., I. 61; Columban., Epist. IV.; and Jon. in V. S. Columban., from A.D. 578 to A.D. 610); although these towns had probably been subject to the Armorican or British King during the 5th century ("Britannos ad Ligerim sitos, Sidon. Apoll., Epist. I. 7, A.D. 472 x 484; also charters from Landevenec in Morice: and see the history of King Riothamus). So, also, Nantes is only "in vicinia Brittonum," A.D. 610 (Columban., Epist. IV.; Galland., XII. 351 b, c). This eastern boundary remained until the 9th century (so the "Limes Namneticus" of Greg. Tur., IX. 18, the "Limes Britonum" of A.Ď. 600 [and onwards] in Fredegar., XX., the "Marchia Britonum" of the first Carlovingians, A.D. 753 and onwards; Saxons also at Bayeux and in the Bessin during this period, and the "Otlingua Saxonica," due south of Bayeux, in A.D. 843 [Capit. Car. Calv. in Baluz., II. 69]; Saxons even for a short time on the Loire [Greg. Tur., II. 18, 19] viz. about A.D. 470): but was pushed east by the Britons after their victory at Ballon in A.D. 845, as far as Bayeux; and not only Rennes and Nantes, but as far as Angers and the Cotentin and Avranchin, ceded to Brittany in A.D. 865 but the two last named again lost (and seized by Normandy) in A.D. 933, and finally in A.D. 941. British Armorica was also called Letavia, Llydaw (Welsh), Leatha or Letha (Irish), either from Lez-arMor or from the Lati of Maximus (Herbert,
App. XI.), Cornugallia, Domnonia (but these two names limited at first to Finisterre and Morbihan), Britannia, Britannia Minor; and its inhabitants Lydwiccas (A. S. C.), Armoricani, 'Apẞópvxo (in Procopius), Brittones, Britanni, Britanni Ultra-marini.
b A.D. 409, Roman officers expelled, and “ οἰκεῖον κατ ̓ ἐξουσίαν πολίτευμα ” established, by “ ὁ ̓Αρμόριχος ἅπας,” in imitation of the Britons proper (Zosim., VI. 5, in fin.). A.D. 416, Exuperantius endeavours to reconquer them (Rutil. Itin., I. 213-216): and A.D. 437 or 439, Littorius (Sidon. Apoll., Carm. VII. 251, 252); and A.D. 445, Majorian raises the Bréton siege of Tours (Id., Carm. V., and Erric. in V. S. Germani): A.D. 447 or 448, S. Germanus intercedes with the Emperor against a projected Alan invasion of Armorica (Constant. in V. S. Germ., II. 5; Bæd. H. E., I. 21): A.D. 451, Armoricans join in the victory of Châlons (Jornand. De Reb. Get., LVI.): A.D. 463, Egidius defeats the Visigoths "in provincia Armoricana" (Idat. Chron.): A.D. 470," Riothamus Rex Britonum helps the Romans against the Goths, --’Αρβόρυχοι Ῥωμαίων στρατιῶται γεγενημένοι,—and A.D.477 × 481, the Britons are driven by the Goths from Bourges (Jornand. ib., XLV.; Sidon. Apoll., Epist. III. 9; Greg. Tur., II. 18; Sigebert; Procop., as below): A.D. 493-497, 'Apẞópvχοι independent allies of the Γερμανοὶ or Franks, who had vainly endeavoured to conquer them (Procop. De Bell. Goth., I. 12). Φράγγων κατήκοοι ὄντες, φόρου μέντοι ἀπαγωγὴν οὔτε πώποτε παρασχόμενοι” (Procop. De B. Goth., IV. 20):-"Subjugata a Francis [a. 799], quod nunquam antea fuerat" (Ann. Franc. ad an. 799):-" Certi fines," kept by Clovis for the Franks and granted by him to the Britons (Lup. Abb. Ferr., Epist. 84).
d King Riwallus (or Howel), "cum multitudine navium a transmarinis veniens" (Act. S. Winoch.): :-"Venerunt transmarini Britanni in minorem Britanniam" (Chron. in Morice, I. 3, in an. 513). So also Chron. Namnet., Chron. S. Michel, Act. S. Paul. Leon., etc.
• Brut Gwent, and two MSS. of Ann. Camb, in an. 682.
The present work has no other concern with Brittany, than in so far as it was ecclesiastically connected with Great Britain.
A.D. 461. First Bréton Bishop recordeda.
CONC. TURON. I.-[Among the signatures,] Mansuetus Episcopus Britannorum interfui et subscripsi. [Labb., IV. 1053.]
[COUNCIL OF VANNES.]
a Mansuetus was probably a regionary Bishop, and obviously in union with Tours, Perpetuus of Tours presiding over this council. The legendary accounts of S. Corentin, the first Bishop of Quimper (Corisopitanus), connect him also with Tours, and with S. Martin; and if (as has been conjectured) his name is disguised under that of "Cariaton," who was at the council of Angers A.D. 453, he was likewise almost contemporary with MansueAs was also the first S. Padarn of Vannes, if he was really there A.D. 448. Venerandus, however, who signs this council at Tours by proxy in A.D. 461, is conjectured to have been Bishop of Quimper. If these two sees really existed at that time, it is possible that Mansuetus may have been Bishop of Aleth, as Trésvaux (l'Eglise de Bretagne, Paris, 1839)
a Perpetuus of Tours presided, and five Bishops besides Paternus, not Britons, were present, or assented, together with two Bishops whose sees are not known, sc. Albinus and Liberalis, conjectured by Stapleton (Rot. Scacc. Norman., I. xli.) to have been respectively Bishops of Quimper and Aleth, as being the only sees unaccounted for. Obviously
A.D. 465. Council of Vannes, to ordain S. Padarn (II.) of Vannes a.
CONC. VENET.-[The synodical letter prefixed to the council states, in the name of the subscribing Bishops, that] Nos in ecclesia Venetica causa ordinandi Episcopi congregavit: [and among the signatures is] Paternus Episcopus subscripsi. [Labb., IV. 1054, 1057.]
conjectures. The Bishops of Nantes and Rennes were also present at the Tours Council, and were plainly not Bishops "Britannorum." The Acta of S. Winwaloë of Landevenec, and those of S. Brioc, also point to the earlier half of this century. And while no doubt there were Christians in Armorica during Roman times, all the British immigrations-beginning A.D. 387 (and continuing until c. A.D. 570)—were of Christian Britons. Yet the Acta S. Melanii (said to have died after A.D. 530) describe the Veneti as "tunc temporis pene omnes gentiles" (Actt. SS. Jan. 6, I. c. IV. § 23). And those of S. Paul of Léon (Bishop there from A.D. 512) testify to the continuance of heathenism in that district also down to that date.
(Probably) A.D. 475 × 480. Faustus the Bréton, Abbat of Lerins, and then Bishop of Riez ".
a Riochat, mentioned in the Litany in Mabillon (below, Append. A.) as a confessor, and called here a Bishop (for "Antistes,' simply, must mean Bishop, in Sidonius), was obviously conveying Faustus' two Books De
Brittany was still reckoned without dispute as within the province of Tours. Can. 15 of the council enacts an uniform "ordo sacrorum," and "consuetudo psallendi," and "unam officiorum regulam," within "provincia nostra:" a canon possibly suggested by Briton immigration.
SIDON. APOLLIN., Epist. IX. 9.-SIDONIUS APOLLINARIS Domino Papæ Fausto. Legi volumina tua, quæ Riochatus, Antistes ac monachus atque istius mundi bis peregrinus, Britannis tuis pro te reportat. Hic igitur ipse venerabilis, apud oppidum nostrum dum moraretur donec gentium concitatarum procella defremeret, etc....... ...... Sed post duos aut iis amplius menses sic quoque a nobis cito profectum, etc. etc. [Galland., X. 546.]
Gratia, from Riez, Faustus' see (A.D. 472494), to Aleth (if that were indeed Riochat's see-nothing is recorded of him elsewhere), or at any rate to Brittany; and in his journey passed through Clermont in Auvergne, Sido
[SEE OF LEON.]
nius' see in A.D. 472-484; and stopped there two months and more on account of the wars, no doubt those of the Britons, Romans, and Visigoths, A.D. 477 X 481. Faustus wrote his work about A.D. 475, and was driven into exile about A.D. 481. Sidonius also writes to King Riothamus, the Breton King,
A.D. 511. A Bréton Bishop at a Council of Orleans.
CONC. AURELIAN. I.-[Among the signatures,] Modestus Episcopus Ecclesiæ Veneticæ a. [Labb., IV. 1410.]
a "Litharedus Oxomensis," named next before Modestus, can hardly have been (as has been guessed) Bishop of Seez, or of the Osismii at (at this date) Quimper. The
respecting certain slaves, stolen "Britannis clam solicitantibus" (Epist. III. 9; Galland., X. 488). Respecting Faustus' semipelagianism, and the councils of Arles, Lyons, Orange, and Valence, on the subject, see Voss. Hist. Pelag.,
editor of the Gallia Christiana (XIV. 873, 971) supposes him to have been a bishop of uncertain or even unsettled see in the district of the Léonois.
A.D. 512. See of Léon, or of the Osismii, taken out of that of Quimper, and erected by Childebert, irrespectively of the See of Toursa.
a The account of the details of the act here recorded dates probably after the time of Charlemagne. The establishment of the see by the King, and the consecration of Paul by Bishops at court and not at Tours, are no doubt facts. The Chronicles assign various dates for the transaction-one as late as A.D. 580. But the Childebert intended was probably the first of the name, King of Paris A.D. 511-558. And Paul is said to have been aided, when an old man, by Judwal of Brittany, who was Count about A.D. 550, and 4th in descent from the Riwallus who came to Brittany in A.D. 513. The existence and authority of a Frank Count at Léon, at whose
ACTA S. PAULI LEON.-Childebertus vero Rex eum (Paulum) a terra elevans, et cujusdam præsulis baculum accipiens, Suscipe, inquit, pastoralem gradum, quo officio queas prodesse saluti plurimorum. Et evocatis tribus Episcopis, qui eum benedicerent, vir Dei, perfusus lacrymis, volens nolens suscepit quod multo tempore distulit. Cui benedicto statim Rex gloriosus Agnensem Leonensemque pagos, cum sibi debito redditu, Regiæ auctoritatis præcepto tradidit. [7o. a Bosco, Biblioth. Floriac., I. 423.]
request Childebert is said to have acted, agrees also with the beginning more than with the end of Childebert's reign, the Franks at the former period being more masters of Brittany than they were at the latter. If Samson came to Dol at this same date, then that see also was possibly founded, and for the influx of British immigrants. But this would seem to belong to the somewhat later immigration of the middle of the century: if indeed Dol was ever a Bishop's see at all until Nomenoë made it so in A.D. 845. The legend of S. Samson (in Lib. Landav.) calls it a "monastery throughout, without any hint of a bishopric there at that time.
A.D. 520. Foundation of the British Monastery of Ruys by Gildas.
a So the Chron. Brit. in Morice. But according to the dates given above in vol. I. pp.
44, 45, note t, it must have been at least 20 years later.