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Agnus Dei, Qui tollis peccata mundi, Parce nobis, Domine.
Agnus Dei, Qui tollis peccata mundi, Dona nobis pacem. Christe, audi nos, III. Kyrie eleison, III.
Christe eleison, III.
Oremus. Pater Noster.
Hæc Oratio post Litaniam canitur. Magnificis mirificisque orationibus atque meritis recensitorum Patriarcharum, Prophetarum, atque Apostolorum, plurimorumque Martyrum, vel electorum, atque Confessorum omnium, petimus et oramus, ut quemadmodum eorum nomina vel
It is a difficult task to locate a Litany, which prays for the "Plebs et Clerus Anglorum," as well as for "Rex et Episcopus," who must be supposed to be " of the Angles" also, and which yet in its list of local saints contains principally Bréton, but wholly Celtic, saints, S. Samson, S. Brioc, etc., S. Patrick and the chief Irish names, and S. Columba, and the Cornish S. Melorus, but no one name connected with Saxon England except that of S. Augustin, an exception proving nothing. And the Bréton names moreover are not only the chief names, but also those of Jess note. The name of S. Judicael brings down its date to at least the end of the 7th century. The special mention of S. Benedict, as in connection with Brittany, points to (at earliest) the 9th. And the names of Gudwal and Melorus seem to postpone it to the end of the 10th, inasmuch as the legends
memoriam in hoc sæculo memorari et recitare frequentamus, ita atque ipsi pro nobis in regnis cœlestibus affectuales ac privatas preces fundere dignentur, ut a Deo veniam et indulgentiam impetrare atque obtinere, et eorum desiderandam et aspiciendam speciem et gloriam in regno Dei videre et congaudere mereamur, præstante Domino nostro Jesu Christo, Cui est honor et potestas et imperium una cum Patre atque Spiritu Sancto in sæcula sæculorum. Amen. [Mabillon, Anal. 168, 169, ed. 1723, from a Rheims MS.J
of those (fictitious) saints date at that period, although they themselves are alleged to have lived earlier. The omission of Columbanus (O'Conor, Biblioth. Stow., II. 2) proves nothing, since the document plainly has no relation to foreign Irish missions or Churches, and belongs to a time and place where S. Benedict was the monastic founder and was held in special reverence. On the whole, taking into account also the place where it was found, and the character of the documents accompanying it or found in like localities, it seems most probable that (invocations excepted) it is an English Litany, possibly from York, transcribed for Bréton use, at the latter part of the time when the influence of the York school was great in Northern France, and when the Bréton Church and State looked for protection to Anglo-Saxon Kings; i. e. somewhere in the 10th century.
LEGENDARY LIVES EXIST OF THE FOLLOWING BRETON SAINTS A.D. 450-800, OF WHOM ALL, EXCEPT THE FEW MARKED ‡, CAME FROM GREAT BRITAIN OR IRELAND.
1. Vita S. Brioci, Episcopi (a Briton "ex gente Coriticiana," alleged to have gone to Gaul with S. Germanus, and thence to Armorica, where he founded a monastery, first at Tréguier a, and then at S. Brieuc, and to have died about A.D. 500: not called a Bishop in his legend, and the see of S. Brieuc was one of those founded by Nomenoë about A.D. 844): in Actt. SS., May 1, I. 92-94, "ex Officio Proprio Eccl. S. Brioci ;" and the Hist. Translationis (i. e. of his relics, to Angers, during the Northman ravages in the end of the 9th century), ib., 94; and see ib., VII. 539, and Hardy's Descr. Catal., I. 103, 104.
2. Vita S. Winwaloëi, Abbatis (son of a British Prince, Fracanus, who fled to Armorica, and born according to one story in Armorica, according to another in Britain, c. A.D. 418; alleged to have been connected with S. Patrick and S. Budoc, and with S. Martin of Tours, and with Gradlon Count of [part of] Brittany, and to have died about A.D. 504; founded the abbey of Landevenech): one, auct. anonymo, in Actt. SS., March 3, I. 250-254; a second, ib., 254, 255; a third in two Books, auct. Gurdestino monacho (abbat of Landevenech some time during the 9th century), ib., 256-261; another in Surius, March 3, p. 38, abbreviated in Capgrave, N. L. A. 312. See also Arch. Cambr. 3rd Series, III. 129, X. 41; and in Dom Morice, Lobineau, etc., and Hardy as above, 104.
[Notices also exist of—i. S. Ninnoca, Virgin (from Great Britain," in Combronensia regione," daughter of King Brechan, migrated to "Letavia," and founded the nunnery of Lan Ninnok; said to have been contemporary with S. Germanus, yet baptized by S. Columba, and more probably of 6th than 5th century), collected in Actt. SS., June 4, I. 407-411; and in Le Grand, from Reg. of Quimperlé.—ii. S. Corentin a, Bishop (a Briton, who founded the see of Quimper [Cornugallia or Cornubia at first, after 8th century Corisopitensis, which properly meant Corseul near Aleth according to M. Bizeul in Bull. Arch. de l'A. Brétonne], under Count Gradlon, and
[BRITISH SAINTS IN BRITTANY.]
was consecrated by S. Martin, i. e. at Tours, S. Martin's see), collected in Actt. SS., July 12, III. 307, 308.-iii. S. Jacutus, of Landouart, and iv. S. Winwaloc or Buennoc, of Landevenech, brothers or cousins of Winwaloë, of whom the latter is said to have gone to Ireland in the time of S. Patrick; and v. S. Guenhael or Guenant (a Briton, second abbat of Landevenech); and vi. S. Rioc (a Bréton at Landevenech); all in Le Grand, Feb. 8, March 3, Nov. 3, and Nov. 12, and the last also in Actt. SS., Feb. 12, II. 602-604.-vii. S. Sezni, Archbishop, and viii. S. Ronan, Anchorite (Irishmen who emigrated to Léon), in Le Grand, Sept. 19 and June 1.-ix. S. Guenegan or Cognogan (Corentin's alleged successor at Quimper), ib., Oct. 15; and in Actt. SS., Oct. 15, VII. i. 43, 44.—x. S. Kénan or Ké, an Irishman, in Le Grand.]
a The Gallo-Roman missionaries from Tours evidently could not penetrate the forest of Brékilien, and their Christianizing efforts were practically confined to the dioceses of Rennes and Nantes, and probably the south of Vannes. The British immigrants came by sea, planted the whole coast-Ruys, Landevenech, S. Matthew's abbey, Léon, Treguier, S. Brieuc, Aleth, Dol,-and penetrated also into the heart of the forest above-named at
S. Méen. See M. de la Borderie in the Bulletin Archæol. de l'Assoc. Brétonne.
b The Britons, says the Life, fled in part to "Scotica terra," in part to "Belgia."
This means, doubtless, only with the see of Tours, not with S. Martin himself, who died about A.D. 400.
d Another S. Corentin (S. Cury) is placed as a hermit in Cornwall at the same period.
1. Vita S. Melanii, Episcopi (a Bréton from Vannes-if Vannes was then Bréton, which is questionable-who became Bishop of Rennes, was at the council of Orleans A.D. 511, and died after A.D. 530, an abbey being dedicated to him at Rennes by King Salomon A.D. 630): auct. coætaneo in Actt. SS., Jan. 6, I. 328–333; and see also Greg. Tur., De Glor. Confess., lv., and the Epist. Gervas., Archiep. Remens. (ob. A.D. 1067), De Mirac. S. Melan. in Actt. SS., ib. His day at Rennes was Nov. 6.
2. Vita S. Gilda (of Ruys): see in vol. I. p. 156.
3. Vita S. Samsonis (of Dol): see in vol. I. pp. 158, 159.
4. Vita S. Paterni (of Vannes): see in vol. I. pp. 159, 160.
5. Vita S. Pauli Aureliani, Leonensis, Episcopi (a Briton from Cornwall, cousin of S. Samson, made Bishop of a new see in Cornugallia, viz. at Léon or of the Osismii, by King Childebert A.D. 512, and consecrated at Childebert's court without reference to Tours; died A.D. 573): one, auct. Monach. Floriac. in Jo. a Bosco, Bibl. Floriac. 418-428, and Actt. SS., March 12, II. 111-120; another, according to Potthast, still in MS. (Paris, S. German. 593), entitled V. S. Pauli Aureliani Domnonensis, auct. Hinworetetio, 4 Id. Mart. See also Hardy, I. 157, 158.
6. Vita S. Maclovi, Episcopi (from Llancarvan and Gwent, connected with SS. Samson and Brendanus; migrated to Brittany, and founded the see of Aleth, afterwards [9th century] translated to S. Malo; noted for a curse, denounced by him against the Brétons for expelling him, which he revoked on their repentance; contemporary with Leontius Bishop of Bourges or of Saintes; died about A.D. 565; called also Machutús or Machutius):
[BRITISH SAINTS IN BRITTANY.]
one, auct. Bili Levita, printed at S. Malo in 1555 (Hardy, I. 138-140); a second, auct. Sigebert. Gemblacensi (A.D. 1076 × 1099), in Surius, Nov. 15, PP. 349 sq.; a third, auct. Balderico Andegavensi (A.D. 1100 × 1200), in Jo. a Bosco, Bibl. Floriac. pp. 485-515, and Mabill., Actt. SS. Bened., sæc. I.
7. Vita S. Maglorii, Episcopi (of Dol, in succession to S. Samson his cousin, whom he had accompanied into Brittany, a disciple also of the Welsh S. Illtyd, died A.D. 575): auct. Balderico Andegavensi, in Surius, Oct. 24, Mabill., Actt. SS. Bened., sæc. I. 223-231, and Actt. SS., Oct. 24, X. 782-791; and abridged in Capgrave, N. L. A. 221; and the Translatio S. Maglorii et aliorum Parisios (i. e. of their relics during the Northman ravages), Actt. SS., ib. 791-793, and Mabill., Ann. Ord. S. Bened., III. 666.
8. Vita S. Golveni, Episcopi (of Léon): see vol. I. p. 160.
9. Vita S. Leonorii (or Lunaire): see vol. I. p. 160.
10. Acta S. Helerii, Martyris (in Jersey), auct. anonymo, in Actt. SS., July 16, IV. 148-152; and see also the V. S. Marculfi (of the Cotentin) in Actt. SS., May 1, I. 71-75, and Mabill., Actt. SS. Bened., sæc. I. 128– 133.
11. Acta †S. Herbaudi sive Heribaldi, solitarii: auct. anonymo, in Actt. SS., June 17, VI. i. 202–204.
12. Acta S. Hervæi, Abbatis: in Actt. SS., June, III. 366–371, but from Le Grand; and see Villemarqué, Légende Celtique.
[Notices also exist of-i. S. Mevanius or Maianus (Méen), a cousin of S. Samson, from Gwent, founder of the abbey of S. Méen in the heart of the Forest of Brékilien, about A.D. 600, which was restored under Charlemagne, and under Louis in A.D. 816 (charter in Dom Morice), in Actt. SS., June 21, IV. 101-104, and Le Grand.—ii. ‡ S. Aaron, hermit in an island (S. Malo) near Aleth, companion of Maclovius, in Actt. SS., June 22, IV. 247.—iii. S. Eboarnus (Eguiner), hermit and martyr c. A.D. 520, an Irishman; in Actt. SS., Feb. 11, II. 568.—iv. S. Tenenanus or Tinidorus, Bishop of Léon, an Irishman; in Actt. SS., July 16, IV. 179, 180.-v. S. Armel or Arzel, a Welsh hermit near Rennes in the time of Childebert,-vi. S. Suliaus, son of Brochmael, a Welsh hermit settled at Rance, died A.D. 606,-vii. S. Hernen or Thernen, a British hermit near Carhoux,-viii. S. Vouga or Vio, an Irish Archbishop, hermit in Brittany,ix. S. Gunstan or Gulstan, a British monk at Ruys (alleged, however, also, to have been a Saxon, really named Dunstan), ‚—x. S. Bieuzy, a British companion of Gildas,-all in Le Grand, respectively Aug. 16, Oct. 1, Nov. 2, June 15, Nov. 27, Nov. 24, and S. Vouga also in Actt. SS., June 15, II. 1060, 1061.—xi. S. Tugdwal or Pabutugdwal, from Britain, founder of the abbey of Tréguier, said to have died A.D. 533; with his companions, S. Goneri and S. Gueroc, Britons, and S. Briac and S. Maudez, Irishmen: in Le Grand, Nov. 30, April 4, Feb. 17, Dec. 7, Nov. 18.-xii. ‡S. Budoc, said to have succeeded Maglorius in the see of Dol: Le Grand, Nov. 18.-xiii. ‡S. Tanfuy, founder of the abbey of S. Matthieu in the sixth century; in Le Grand, ed. Kerdanet, p. 781.]
[BRITISH SAINTS IN BRITTANY.]
1. Vita S. Melarii (a Bréton Prince, murdered by his uncle, see Morice, Daru, etc.): in Actt. SS., Oct. 2, I. 2, 317, 319; Jan. 3, I. 136, 137.
2. Vita S. Ethbini (died about A.D. 625): see vol. I. pp. 160, 161.
3. Vita S. Joava seu Jovini, Episcopi (of Léon, an Irishman who accompanied S. Paul de Léon thither): in Actt. SS., March 2, I. 139.
4. Vita S. Judoci (Josse), Presbyteri et Confessoris (son or brother of Judicael Prince of Brittany a, hermit in Ponthieu: died about A.D. 651 or 668): one, auct. anon., sæc. VIII., in Mabill., Actt. SS. Bened., sæc. II. 566-571; a second, his Translatio, auct. Isembardo Floriac. (c. A.D. 1003), see Hardy, Descr. Catal., I. 267; a third, auct. Florentio abbate Britanno, in Surius, Dec. 13.
[Notices also exist of—i. S. Gurval, a Briton brought up by S. Brendan, and Bishop of Aleth after S. Maclou, in Actt. SS., June 6, I. 727.—ii. S. Goeznou, a Briton, Bishop of Léon A.D. 650675, in Le Grand, Oct. 25.—iii. ‡S. Genevæus, Bishop of Dol, died A.D. 639, in Actt. SS., July 29, VII. 83.-iv. ‡S. Guennius, Bishop of Vannes, died A.D. 622, in Actt. SS., Aug. 18, III. iii. 662, 663.—v. ‡S. Egnogatus or Enogatus, Bishop of Aleth, died A.D. 631, in Actt. SS., Jan. 13, I. 822.—vi. ‡ S. Euriela, Virgin, in Actt. SS., Oct. 1, I. 198.]
Judicael himself became a monk at S. Méen's, resumed the crown in A.D. 632, on the death of his brother Salomon who had
excluded him, and retired again to S. Méen A.D. 638 (Morice, etc.).
1. Vita S. Winochi, Abbatis (at Wormholt in Flanders, a Bréton Prince, son or brother of Judicael, died A.D. 717): one, auct. anon., sæc. XI., in Surius, Nov. 6, and Mabill., Actt. SS. Bened., sæc. III. i. 302-314; another, auct. Drogone seu Dracone monacho Bergensi (of Bergue S. Winox), sæc. XI., in Mabill., ib. 315-317.
2. Vita S. Turiavi seu Turiani, Episcopi (of Dol, died A.D. 749): in Surius, July 13, and Actt. SS., July 13, III. 617-619.
3. Vita S. Benedicti, Abbatis (a Greek from Patras, said to have sailed round to the mouth of the Loire, and to have become abbat of Macerac on the Vilaine, dioc. Nantes, born A.D. 782, died A.D. 850): also of his sister Avenia: in Actt. SS., Oct. 22, IX. 625, 626.
4. Vita S. Hermenlandi (Herblon), Abbatis (a German from Nimeguen, who founded about A.D. 695 the monasteries of the islands of Aindre and Aindrette, in the Loire below Nantes, in the time of Bishop Pasquier; died A.D. 730): auct. anon. fere æquali, in Actt. SS., March 25, III. 576– 586, and Mabill., Actt. SS. Bened., sac. III. i. 383-403.