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Constitution and to retake the property There is nothing disheartening in this
of the United States, not merely to settle prospect. Our people, accustomed as they
the question of the right of a majority to have been during late years to the most
control an insolent and rebellious minori- lavish use of money, and to general ex-
ty in the republic, nor to establish the fact travagance in expense, have not yet lost
of the national existence and historic uni- the tradition of the economies and thrift
ty of the United States; but it is also and of earlier times, and will not find it diffi-
more essentially a war for the establish- cult to put them once more into practice.
ment of civilization in that immense por- The burden will not fall upon any single
tion of our country in which for many class; and when each man, whatever be
years barbarism has been gaining power. his station in life, is called upon to lower
It is for the establishment of liberty and his scale of living, no one person will find
justice, of freedom of conscience and lib- it too hard to do what all others are do-
erty of thought, of equal law and of per- ing.
sonal rights, throughout the South. If But if such be the objects and the
these are not to be secured without the prospects of the war, it is plain that they
abolition of slavery, it is a war for the require more sober thought and more
abolition of slavery. We are not mak- careful forecasting and more thorough
ing war to reëstablish an old order of preparation than have thus far been given
things, but to set up a new one. We to them. If we be the generation chosen
are not giving ourselves and our fortunes to accomplish the work that lies ready to
for the purpose of fighting a few battles, our hands, if we be commissioned to so
and then making peace, restoring the glorious and so weighty an enterprise,
Southern States to their old place in the there is but one spirit befitting our task.
Union,- but for the sake of destroying the The war, if it is to be successful, must be
root from which this war has sprung, and a religious war: not in the old sense of
of making another such war impossible. that phrase, not a war of violent excite-
It is not worth while to do only half or a ment and passionate enthusiasm, not a
quarter of our work. But if we do it war in which the crimes of cruel bigots
thoroughly, as we ought, the war must be are laid to the charge of divine impulse,
a long one, and will require from us long but a war by itself, waged with dignified
sacrifices. It is well to face up to the fact and solemn strength, with clean hands
at once, that this generation is to be com- and pure hearts, — a war calm and in-
pelled to frugality, and that luxurious ex- evitable in its processes as the judgments
penses upon trifles and superfluities must of God. When Cromwell's men went
be changed for the large and liberal cost- out to win the victory at Winceby Fight,
liness of a noble cause.

We are not to their watchword was “ Religion.” Can we
expect or hope for a speedy return of in our great struggle for liberty and right
what is called prosperity ; but we are adopt any other watchword than this ?
greatly and abundantly prosperous, if we Do we require another defeat and more
succeed in extending and establishing the suffering to bring us to a sense of our
principles which alone can give dignity responsibility to God for the conduct and
and value to national or individual life, the issue of this war ?
and without which, material abundance, It is only by taking the highest ground,
success in trade, and increase of wealth by raising ourselves to the full concep-
are evidences rather of the decline than tion of what is involved in this contest,
of the progress of a state. We, who have that we shall secure success, and prevent
so long been eager in the pursuit and ourselves from sinking to the level of
accumulation of riches, are now to show those who are fighting against us. The
more generous energies in the free spend- demoralization necessarily attendant up-
ing of our means to gain the invaluable on all wars is to be met and overcome
objects for which we have gone to war. only by simple and manly religious con-

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viction and effort. It will be one of the stitutions at the North do not produce
advantages of defeat to have made it ev- better, more humane, and more coura-
ident that a regiment of bullies and prize- geous men than those of the South, when
fighters is not the best stuff to compose taken in the mass, there is no reason for
an army. “ Your men are not vindic- the sacrifice of blood and treasure in their
tive enough,” Mr. Russell is reported to support. War must be always cruel; it
have said, as he watched the battle. It is not to be waged on principles of ten-
was the saying of a shrewd observer, but derness; but a just, a religious war can
it expresses only an imperfect apprehen- be waged only mercifully, with no ex-
sion of the truth. Vindictiveness is not cess, with no circumstance of avoidable
the spirit our men should have, but a res- suffering. Our enemies are our outward
oluteness of determination, as much more consciences, and their reproaches may
to be relied upon than a vindictive pas- warn us of our dangers.
sion as it is founded upon more stable The soldiers of the Northern army
and more enduring qualities of character. generally are men capable of understand-
The worst characters of our great cities ing the force of moral considerations.
may be the fit equals of Mississippi or They are intelligent, independent, vigor-
Arkansas russians, but the mass of our ous, – - as good material as an army ever
army is not to be brought down to the was formed from. A large proportion
standard of rowdies or the level of bar- of them have gone to the war from the
barians. The men of New England and best motives, and with clear appreciation
of the West do not march under banners of the nature and grounds of the contest.
with the device of “Booty and Beau- But they require to be confirmed in their
ty,” though General Beauregard has the principles, and to be strengthened against
effrontery to declare it, and Bishop, now the temptations of life in the camp and
General, Polk the ignorance to utter sim- in the field, by the voice and support of
ilar slanders. The atrocities committed the communities from which they have
on our wounded and prisoners by the If the country is careless or in-
“ chivalry” of the South may excite not different as to their moral standard, they
only horror, but a wild fury of revenge. will inevitably become so themselves, and
But our cause should not be stained with lose the perception of the objects for
cruelty and crime, even in the name which they are fighting, forgetting their
of vengeance. If the war is simply one responsibilities, not only as soldiers, but
in which brute force is to prevail, if we as good men. It is one of the advan-
are fighting only for lust and pride and tages of defeat to force the thoughts which
domination, then let us have our " Ells- camp-life may have rendered unfamiliar
worth Avengers," and let us slay the back into the soldier's mind. The boast-
wounded of our enemy without mercy; fulness of the advance is gone, — and
let us burn their hospitals, let us justify there is chance for sober reflection.
their, as yet, false charges against us; let It is especially necessary for our men,
us admit the truth of the words of the unaccustomed to the profession of arms,
Bishop of Louisiana, that the North is and entering at once untried upon this
prosecuting this war “ with circumstan- great war, to take a just and high view
ces of barbarity which it was fondly be- of their new calling : to look at it with
lieved would never more disgrace the the eyes, not of mercenaries, but of men
annals of a civilized people.” But if we, called into their country's service; to re-
if our brothers in the army, are to lose gard it as a life which is not less, but
the proud distinctions of the North, and more difficult than any other to be dis-
to be brought down to the level of the charged with honor.

“ Our profession," tender mercies and the humane counsels said Washington, “is the chastest of all; of slaveholders and slave-drivers, there even the shallow of a fault tarnishes the would be little use in fighting. If our in- lustre of our finest achievements.” Our

come.

soldiers in Virginia, and in the other panic that accompanied it were not due to Slave States, have not only their own cowardice among our men. During long reputation to support, but also that of hours our troops bad fought well, and the communities from which they come. showed their gallantry under the most There must be a rivalry in generous trying circumstances. They were not efforts among the troops of different afraid to die. It was not strange that States. Shall we not now have our regi- raw volunteers, as many of them were, ments which by their brave and honor- inefficiently supported, and poorly led, able conduct shall win appellations not should at length give way before superior less noble than that of the Auvergne force, and yield to the weakness induced sans tache, “ Auvergne without a stain ” ? by exhaustion and hunger. But the lesIf the praise that Mr. Lincoln bestow- son of defeat would be imperfectly learned upon our men in his late Message ed, did not the army and the nation alike to Congress be not undeserved, they gain from it a juster sense than they beare bound to show qualities such as no fore possessed of the value of individual other common soldiers have ever been life. Never bas life been so much prized called to exbibit. There are among them and so precious as it has become in Amermore men of character, intelligence, and ica. Never before has each individual principle than were ever seen before in been of so much worth. It costs more to the ranks. There should be a higher bring up a man here, and he is worth more tone in our service than in that of any when brought up, than elsewhere. The other people; and it would be a reproach long peace and the extraordinary amount to our institutions, if our soldiers did not of comfort which the nation has enjoyed show themselves not only steady and have made us (speaking broadly) fond of brave in action, undaunted in spirit, un- life and tender of it. We of the North wearied in energy, but patient of disci- have looked with astonishment at the reckpline, self-controlled, and forbearing. The lessness of the South concerning it. We disgrace to our arms of the defeat at have thought it braver to save than to Bull Run was not so great as that of spend it; and a questionable humanity the riotous drunkenness and disorderly has undoubtedly led us sometimes into conduct of our men during the two or feeble sentimentalities, and false estimates three days that succeeded at Washington. of its value. We have been in danger If our men are to be the worthy soldiers of thinking too much of it, and of being of so magnificent a cause as that in which mean-spirited in its use. But the first they are engaged, they must raise them- sacrifice for which war calls is life; and selves to its height. Battles may be won we must revise our estimates of its value, by mere human machines, by men serv- if we would conduct our war to a happy ing for eleven dollars a month; but a vic- end. To gain that end, no sacrifice can tory such as we have to gain can be won be too precious or too costly. The shudonly by men who know for what and der with which we heard the first report why they are fighting, and who are con- that three thousand of our men scious of the dignity given to them and slain was but the sign of the blow that the responsibility imposed upon them by our hearts received. But there must be the sacredness of their cause. The old no shrinking from the prospect of the flag, the stars and stripes, must not only death of our soldiers. Better than that be the symbol in their eyes of past glo

we should fail that a million men should ries and of the country's honor, but its die on the battle-field. It is not often stars must shine before them with the that men can have the privilege to offer light of liberty, and its stripes must be their lives for a principle; and when the the emblem of the even and enduring opportunity comes, it is only the coward lines of equal justice.

that does not welcome it with gladness. The retreat from Bull Run and the Life is of no value in comparison with

were

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the spiritual principles from which it the advantages of defeat to teach men the gains its worth. No matter how many preciousness of honor, the necessity of lives it costs to defend or secure truth or winning and keeping it at any cost. Honjustice or liberty, truth and justice and or and duty are but two names for the liberty must be defended and secured. same thing in war. But the novelty of Self-preservation must yield to Truth's

war is so great to us, we are so unpracpreservation. The little human life is tised in it, and we have thought so little for to-day, - the principle is eternal. To of it heretofore as concerning ourselves, die for truth, to die open-eyed and reso- that there is danger lest we fail at first lutely for the “good old cause,” is not to appreciate its finer elements, and negonly honor, but reward. Suffering is a lect the opportunities it affords for the gift not given to every one,” said one of practice of virtues rarely called out in the Scotch martyrs in 1684, “and I de- civil life. The common boast of the South, sire to bless the Lord with my whole that there alone was to be found the chivheart and soul that He has counted such alry of America, and that among the a poor thing as I am worthy of the gift Southern people was a higher strain of of suffering."

courage and a keener sense of honor The little value of the individual in com- than among the people of the North, is parison with the principles upon which now to be brought to the test. There the progress and happiness of the race is no need to repeat the common places depend is a lesson enforced by the anal- about bravery and honor. But we and ogies of Nature, as well as by the evidence our soldiers should remember that it is of history and the assurance of faith. Na

not the mere performance of set work ture is careless of the single life. Her pro- that is required of them, but the valiant cesses seem wasteful, but out of seeming and generous alacrity of noble minds in waste she produces her great and durable deeds of daring and of courtesy. Though results. Everywhere in her works are the science of war has in modern times the signs of life cut short for the sake of changed the relations and the duties of some effect more permanent than itself. men on the battle-field from what they And for the establishing of those immor- were in the old days of knighthood, yet tal foundations upon which the human there is still room for the display of stainrace is to stand firm in virtue and in less valor and of manful virtue. Honhope, for the building of the walls of or and courage are part of our religion ; truth, there will be required no scanty and the coward or the man careless of expenditure of individual life. Men are honor in our army of liberty should fall nothing in the count, - man is every- under heavier shame than ever rested

on the disgraced soldier in former times. The spirit of the nation will be shown The sense of honor is finer than the in its readiness to meet without shrinking common sense of the world. It counts such sacrifice of life as may be demanded no cost and reckons no sacrifice great. in gaining our end. We must all suffer “ Then the king wept, and dried his eyes, and rejoice together, — but let there be and said, “Your courage bad neere hand no unmanly or unwomanly fear of blood- destroyed you, for I call it folly knights shed. The deaths of our men from sick- to abide when they be overmatched.' ness, from camp epidemics, are what we Nay,' said Sir Lancelot and the other, should fear and prevent; death on the for once shamed may never be recoverbattle-field we have no right to dread. ed."" The examples of Bayard, The men who die in this cause die well; peur et sans reproche, – of Sidney, of the they could wish for no more honorable beroes of old or recent days, are for our end of life.

imitation. We are bound to be no less The honor lost in our recent defeat can worthy of praise and remembrance than not be regained, - but it is indeed one of they. They did nothing too high for us

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to imitate. And in their glorious com- tory we shall in good time have. There pany we may hope that some of our is no need to fear or be doubtful of the names may yet be enrolled, to stand as issue. As soon as we deserve it, victory the inspiring exemplars and the models will be ours; and were we to win it befor coming times. If defeat has brought fore, it would be but an empty and barus shame, it has brought us also firmer ren triumph. All history is but the prophresolve. No man can be said to know ecy of our final success,-and Milton has himself, or to have assurance of his force put the prophecy into words: “Go on, O of principle and character, till he has Nation, never to be disunited! Be the been tested by the fires of trial in the praise and the heroic song of all postercrucible of defeat. The same is true of ity! Merit this, but seek only virtue, not a nation. The test of defeat is the to extend your limits, (for what needs to test of its national worth. Defeat shows win a fading triumphant laurel out of whether it deserves success.

the tears of wretched men ?) but to setwell be grateful and glad for our defeat tle the pure worship of God in his church, of the 21st of July, if we wrest from and justice in the state. Then shall the it the secrets of our weakness, and are hardest difficulties smooth out themselves thrown back by it to the true sources before thee; envy shall sink to hell, craft of strength. If it has done its work thor- and malice be confounded, whether it be oughly, if we profit sufficiently by the ad- home - bred mischief or outlandish cunvantages it has afforded us, we may be ning; yea, other nations will then covet well content that so slight a harm has to serve thee, for lordship and victory are brought us so great a good. But if not, but the pages of justice and virtue. Use then let us be ready for another and an- thine invincible might to do worthy and other defeat, till our souls shall be tem- godlike deeds, and then he that seeks to pered and our forces dis ned for the break your union a cleaving curse be his worthy attainment of victory. For vic- inheritance to all generations !”

We may

ODE TO HAPPINESS.

I.

Spirit, that rarely comest now,
And only to contrast my gloom,
Like rainbow-feathered birds that bloom
A moment on some autumn bough
Which, with the spurn of their farewell,
Sheds its last leaves, - thou once didst dwell
With me year-long, and make intense
To boyhood's wisely-vacant days
That fleet, but all-sufficing grace
Of trustful inexperience,
While yet the soul transfigured sense,
And thrilled, as with love's first caress,
At life's mere unexpectedness.

II.

Those were thy days, blithe spirit, those
When a June sunshine could fill up

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