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at his intended place a few hours earlier, ran away from the French about two the French would have been beaten, and o'clock in the afternoon, and swept othprobably the French Empire have fallen ers with them in their rush, much to the at Vienna in 1809, instead of falling at rage of the British, some of whom hissed, Paris in 1814; and then the House of hooted, and cursed, forgetting that quite Austria would have achieved one of those as discreditable incidents had occurred in extraordinary triumphs over its most pow- the course of the military history of their erful enemies that are so common in its own country. One portion of the British extraordinary history. The incident bears troops that desired to fire upon those exsome resemblance to the singular pan- hibitors of “ Dutch courage” actually beic that happened the day after the Bat- longed to the most conspicuous of the tle of Solferino, and which was brought regiments that ran away at Falkirk, sevon by the appearance of a few Austrian enty years before. At a later bour Trip's hussars, who came out of their hiding- Dutch-Belgian cavalry-brigade ran away place to surrender, many thousand men in such haste and disorder that some running for miles, and showing that the squadrons of German hussars experienced most successful army of modern days great difficulty in maintaining theirground could be converted into a mob by — against the dense crowd of fugitives. The nothing

Cumberland regiment of Hanoverian husSeldom has the world seen such a pan- sars was deliberately taken out of the field ic as followed the Battle of Vittoria, in by its colonel when the shot began to fall which Wellington dealt the French Em- about it, and neither orders nor entreapire the deadly blow under which it reel- ties nor arguments nor execrations could ed and fell; for, if that battle had not induce it to form under fire. Nay, it rebeen fought and won, the Allies would fused to form across the high-road, out probably have made peace with Napo- of fire, but “ went altogether to the rear, leon, following up the armistice into spreading alarm and confusion all the way which they had already entered with to Brussels.” Nothing but the coming up him ; but Vittoria encouraged them to of the cavalry - brigades of Vivian and hope for victory, and not in vain. The Vandeleur, at a late hour, prevented large French King of Spain there lost his numbers of Wellington's infantry from crown and his carriage; the Marshal of leaving the field. The troops of Nassau France comma

manding lost his bâton, and fell“ back en masse against the horses' the honorable fame which he had won heads of the Tenth Hussars, who, keepnineteen years before at Fleurus; and ing their files closed, prevented further the French army lost its artillery, all but retreat." The Tenth belonged to Vivione piece, and, what was of more conse- an's command. D’Aubremé's Dutch-Belquence, its honor. It was the completest gian infantry-brigade was prevented from rout ever seen in that age of routs and running off when the Imperial Guard beballs. And yet the defeated army was gan their charge, only because Vandea veteran army, and most of its officers leur's cavalry-brigade was in their rear, were men whose skill was as little to be with even the squadron-intervals closed, doubted as their bravery.

so that they had to elect between the There were panics at Waterloo, not a French bayonet and the English sabre. few; and, what is remarkable, they hap- There was something resembling a tempened principally on the side of the vic- porary panic among Maitland's British tors,-the French suffering nothing from Guards, after the repulse of the first colthem till after the battle was lost, when umn of the Imperial Guard, but order the pressure of circumstances threw their

was very promptly restored. It is imbeaten army into much confusion, and it possible to read any extended account of was not possible that it should be other- the Battle of Waterloo without seeing wise. Bylandt's Dutch-Belgian brigade that it was a desperate business on the

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part of the Allies, and that, if the Prus- The Russian War was not of a nature sians could have been kept out of the ac- to afford room for the occurrence of any tion, their English friends would have had panic on an extensive scale, but between an excellent chance to keep the field — that contest and ours there is one point as the killed and wounded. Wellington of resemblance that may be noted. The never had the ghost of a chance with failures and losses of the Allies, who had out the aid of Bülow, Zieten, and Blü- at their command unlimited means, and cher.*

the bravest of soldiers in the greatest num* There is no great battle concerning which ies of infantry, whom they would not permit to so much nonsense has been written and spoken run away, which they sought to do. The first as that of Waterloo, which ought to console us column of the Guard was repulsed by a fire of for the hundred-and-one accounts that are cur- cannon and musketry, and when disordered it rent concerning the action of the 21st of July, was charged by Maitland's brigade of British no two of which are more alike than if the one Guards. The interval between the advance of related to Culloden and the other to Arbela. that column and that of the second column was The common belief is, that toward the close from ten to twelve minutes; and the appearof the day Napoleon formed two columns of ance of the second column caused Maitland's the Ou Guard, and sent them against the Al- Guards to fall into confusion, and the whole lied line; that they advanced, and were simul- body went to the rear. This confusion, we taneously repulsed by the weight and precision are told, was not consequent upon either deof the English fire in front; and that, on see- feat or panic, but resulted simply from a mising the columns of the Guard fall into disor- understanding of the command. The coming der, the French all fled, and Wellington im- up of the second column led to a panic in mediately ordered his whole line to advance, a Dutch-Belgian brigade, which would have which prevented the French from rallying, left the field but for the presence of Vandethey flying in a disorderly mass, which was leur's cavalry, through which the men could incapable of resistance. So far is this view of not penetrate; and yet the panic-stricken men the “Crisis of Waterloo " from being correct, could not even see the soldiers before whose that the repulse of the Guard would not have shouts they endeavored to fly! The second carried with it the loss of the battle, had it not column was partially supported, at first, by been for a number of circumstances, some of a body of cavalry; but it failed in consewhich made as directly in favor of the English quence of a flank attack made by the Fiftyas the others worked unfavorably to the French. Second Regiment, which was aided by the When Napoleon found that the operations of operations of some other regiments, all beBülow's Prussians threatened to compromise longing to General Adam's brigade. This athis right flank and rear, he determined to tack on its left flank was assisted by the fire make a vigorous attempt to drive the Allies of a battery in front, and by the musketry of from their position in his front, not merely by the British Guards on its right flank. Thus employing two columns of his Guard, but by assailed, the defeat of the second column was making a general attack on Wellington's line. inevitable. Had it been supported by cavalFor this purpose, he formed one column of four ry, so that it could not have been attacked on battalions of the Middle Guard, and another either flank, it would have succeeded in its of four other battalions of the Middle Guard purpose. Adam's brigade followed up its sucand two battalions of the Old Guard. At the cess, and Vivian's cavalry was ordered forsame time the corps of D'Erlon and Reille were ward by Wellington, to check the French carto advance, and a severe tiraillade was opened alry, should it advance, and to deal generally by a great number of skirmishers; and the at- with the French reserves. Adam and Vivian tack was supported by a tremendous fire from did their work so well that Wellington ordered artillery. So animated and effective were the his whole line of infantry to advance, supportoperations of the various bodies of French not ed by cavalry and artillery. The French made belonging to the Guard, that nothing but the considerable resistance after this, but their rearrival of the cavalry brigades of Vandeleur treat became inevitable, and soon degenerated and Vivian, from the extreme left of the Allied into a rout. An exception to the general disline, prevented that line from being pierced in organization was observed by the victors, not several places. Those brigades had been re- unlike to an incident which we have seen lieved by the arrival of the advance of Zieten's mentioned in an account of the Bull Run Prussian corps, and were made available for flight. In the midst of the crowd of fugitives the support of the points threatened by the on the 21st of July, and forcing its way through French. They were drawn up in rear of bod.

that crowd, was seen a company of infantry,

now in

bers, were all owing to bad management; which never have been explained and and our reverses in every instance are never will be. It is characteristic of a owing to the same cause. The disaster panic that its occurrence cannot be acat Bull Run, and the inability of our men counted for; and therefore it was that to keep the ground they had won at Wil- the ancients attributed it to the direct son's Creek, in Missouri, (August 10,) interposition of a god, as arising from were the legitimate consequences of ac- some cause quite beyond human compretion over which the mass of the soldiers hension. If panics could be clearly excould have no control. It is due to the plained, some device might be hit upon, soldiers to say this, for it is the truth, as perhaps, for their prevention. But we every man knows who has observed the

see that they occurred at the very dawn course of the contest, and who has seen of history, that they have happened reit proceed from a political squabble to the peatedly for five-and-twenty centuries, dimensions of a mighty war, the end of and that they are a common which mortal vision cannot foresee. the nineteenth Christian century as they

It would be no difficult task to add a were in those days when Pan was a hundred instances to those we have men- god. “Great Pan is not dead," but sends tioned of the occurrence of panies in Eu- armies to pot now as readily as he did ropean armies; but it is not necessary to when there were hoplites and peltasts pursue the subject farther. Nothing is on earth. We can console ourselves, better known than that almost every emi- though the consolation be but a poor one, nent commander has suffered from panic with the reflection that all military peoples terror having taken control of the minds have suffered from the same cause that of his men, and nothing is more unjust has brought so much mortification and so than to speak of the American panic of great loss immediately home to us. Our the 21st of July as if it were something panic is the greatest that ever was known quite out of the common way of war. only because it is the latest one that has True, its origin has never been fully ex- happened, and because it has happened plained; but in this point it only resem- to ourselves. It is idle, and even laughbles most other panics, the causes of able, to attempt to argue it out of sight.

We should admit its occurrence as freely marching as coolly and steadily as if on parade. as it is asserted by the bitterest and most So it was after Waterloo, when the grenadiers unfair of our critics; and we should recà cheval moved off at a walk,“ in close col- ognize the truth of what has been well umn, and in perfect order, as if disdaining to allow itself to be contaminated by the confusion

said on the subject, that the only possible that prevailed around it.” It was unsuccess

answer to the attacks that have been made fully attacked, and the regiment “ literally on the national character for military cawalked from the field in the most orderly man- pacity and courage is victory. If we shall ner, moving majestically along the stream, the succeed in this war, the rout of Bull Run surface of which was covered with the innu

will no more destroy our character for merable wrecks into which the rest of the

manliness than the rout of Landen deFrench army had been scattered.” It was supposed that this body of cavalry was en stroyed the character of Englishmen for gaged in protecting the retreat of the Emper- the same virtue. If we fail; we must subor, and, had all the French been as cool and mit to be considered cowards : and we determined as were those veteran horsemen,

shall deserve to be so held, if, with our the army might have been saved. Troops in

superior numbers, and still more superior retreat, who hold firmly together, and show a bold countenance to the enemy, are seldom

means, we cannot maintain the Republic made to suffer much.

against the rebels.


Ox primal rocks she wrote her name;

Her towers were reared on holy graves ; The golden seed that bore her came

Swift-winged with prayer o'er ocean waves.

The Forest bowed his solemn crest,

And open flung his sylvan doors; Meek Rivers led the appointed Guest

To clasp the wide-embracing shores ;

Till, fold by fold, the broidered land

To swell her virgin vestments grew, While Sages, strong in heart and hand,

Her virtue's fiery girdle drew.

O Exile of the wrath of kings !

O Pilgrim Ark of Liberty ! The refuge of divinest things,

Their record must abide in thee!

First in the glories of thy front

Let the crown-jewel, Truth, be found; Thy right hand fling, with generous wont,

Love's happy chain to farthest bound !

Let Justice, with the faultless scales,

Hold fast the worship of thy sons ; Thy Commerce spread her shining sails

Where no dark tide of rapine runs !

So link thy ways to those of God,

So follow firm the heavenly laws,
That stars may greet thee, warrior-browed,

And storm-sped Angels bail thy cause !

O Land, the measure of our prayers,

Hope of the world in-grief and wrong, Be thine the tribute of the years,

The gift of Faith, the crown of Song !



The great war which is upon us is and use of the machinery of destruction. shaking us down into solidity as corn is We had come to look upon our fortresses shaken down in the measure.

We were

as the ornaments, rather than as the deheaped up in our own opinion, and some- fences of our harbors. Our war-ships times running over in expressions of it. were the Government's yacht-squadron, This rude jostling is showing us the dif- our arsenals museums for the entertainference between bulk and weight, space ment of peaceful visitors. The roar of and substance.

cannon has roused us from this Arcadian In one point of view we have a right dream. A ship of the line, we said,

reto be proud of our inexperience, and proachfully, costs as much as a college; hardly need to blush for our shortcom- but we are finding out that its masts are ings. These are the tributes we are pay- a part of the fence round the college. The ing to our own past innocence and tran- Springfield Arsenal inspired a noble poquillity. We have lived a peaceful life em; but that, as we are learning, was not so long that the traditional cunning and all it was meant for. What poets would cruelty of a state of warfare have be- be born to us in the future without the come almost obsolete among us. No won- placida quies” which “sub libertate” the der that hard men, bred in foreign camps, sword alone can secure for our children ? find us too good-natured, wanting in ha- It is all plain, but it has been an astred towards our enemies. We can read. tonishment to us, as our war-comet was ily believe that it is a special Providence to the astronomers. The comet, as some which has suffered us to meet with a re- of them say, brushed us with its tail as it verse or two, just enough to sting, with- passed; yet nobody finds us the worse for out crippling us, only to wake up the it. So, too, we have been brushed lightly slumbering passion which is the legitimate by mishap, as we ought to have been, and and chosen instrument of the higher pow- as we ought to have prayed to be, no ers for working out the ends of justice doubt, if we bad known what was good and the good of man.

for us; yet at this very moment we stand There are a few far-seeing persons to stronger, more hopeful, more united than whom our present sudden mighty con- ever before in our history. flict may not have come as a surprise ; Misfortunes are no new things; yet a but to all except these it is a prodigy as man suffering from furuncles will often startling as it would be, if the farmers of speak as if Job had never known anythe North should find a ripened harvest of thing about them. We will take up a blood-red ears of maize upon the succu- book lying by us, and find all the evils, or lent stalks of midsummer. We have live most of those we have been complaining ed for peace: as individuals, to get food, of, described in detail, as they happened comfort, luxuries for ourselves and others; eight or ten generations before our time. as communities, to insure the best condi- It was in “ a struggle for NATIONAL intions we could for each human being, so dependence, liberty of conscience, freedom that he might become what God meant of the seas, against sacerdotal and worldhim to be. The verdict of the world was, absorbing tyranny.A plotting despot is that we were succeeding. Many came at the bottom of it. “ While the riches to us from the old civilizations; few went of the Indies continue, he thinketh he will away from us, and most of these such as be able to weary out all other princes.” we could spare without public loss. But England had soldiers and states

We had almost forgotten the meaning men ready to fight, even though “In

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