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NAPOLEON t: LA GRANDE AKMEE. I have been reading the "Journal du General Fantin dea Odoards: Etapes d'un Officier de la Grande Armee, 1800-1830," Librairie Plon, 1895. This is a most interesting book, written by a man of refinement and a keen observer of things both great and small. The general gives ns a description of -certain of the campaigns of Napoleon, as written by a yonng officer who passed nearly the whole of that period of his career with his regiment. While the romance of courts is but little touched upon, and the greater operations of war are not alluded to critically from the point of view of the commander, the work is the more interesting because it deals with the wars of the Empire from the observation of a simple captain, and is taken in many respects from a standpoint different from those of Marbot and Thiebault. There are many points which are critically dealt with ; and while much detail is in a single volume necessarily omitted, there are several features which delineate clearly the characteristics of the better class of French officer of that day. The book also throws a decisive light on the Emperor's methods of warfare, particularly as the general treats everything in a plain businesslike fashion, marked almost throughout by an absence of that sentiment which has given too high a colour to other similar memoirs.
To detail the manner of life of the French officer in the enemy's country would occupy too much space; but it is important to notice the plain admissions made by General Fantin of the extraordinary extent to whioh marauding was carried by the French armies, and the manner in which it recoiled upon them. The author writes, in 1805, at Zusmorsbausen:—
"Nous sommtf ici en Baviere, pays dont none devons etre les allies et let liberateurs, et je vols avec peine ana
nos soldats ee conduieent en ennemii 11 me semble
one, par des exemplei de severite, on pourrait arreter cet desordres, qui ne peuvent avoir que dea suites funestee,"
prophesying thoroughly the frightful murders and reprisals afterwards described in the Peninsular campaigns. In 1806 the general alludes to the systematic inroads of the army into the cellars of the Austrian peasants, and in 1807, after Eylau, when in cantonments at Guttstadt, upon the Alle, to the organized system of marauding in vogue, bringing terrible results to the miserable inhabitants and strife among the different branob.es of the French service. Later on, in Spain, nothing is more noticeable than the ominous allusions made in 1808 at Vittoria to the "gout da pillage que nos soldats ont contract6 depuis longtemps, et qu'ils ont a peine reprime- en traversant Ieur patrie," the fear being lest it should revive, and exasperate "un peuple tier et irascible." In Portugal, in 1809, the general mentions the series of assassinations by and reprisals upon the desperate inhabitants, winding up with the pithy remark, " An diable la gloire quand elle mine a la potence." He sums up the position of the French in Spain with a little Gallic vanity, saying that while in other countries the women had been constantly on the Bide of the conquerors, in the hated Peninsula even "nous sommes deteates meme des filleB publiques que nous enrichissons."
The allusions of General Fantin to his chiefs are not numerous. For the Emperor, ef whose Guard he was for a time an officer, he has always the most devoted admiration; but of him he gives nothing that we do not already know. As in honour bound, he is convinced of the divine mission of Napoleon to subdue Europe; and, speaking of Austerlitz and the Russian losses, adds, "Une lecon si vertement donnee parait dono devoir etre fructueuse, et degouter pour longtemps les hordes du nord de se meler des affaires du midi de rEurope." To the ambitious schemes of Soult he gives some space, and he aims a dart at the enmity between that marshal and Ney, while he denounces the artifice of Marat employed to gain possession of the all-important bridge over the Danube in 1805. He also mentions, with the business-like regret of a soldier of fortune, the light band exercised by Saint Cyr over the inhabitants of Dresden in 1813. He makes a droll allusion to the plebeian character of Marshal Lefebvre, who