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Besides these letters, there are three vowel points, indicating sounds nearly corresponding to a, i, and u; as, however, these are not printed, they afford no assistance to the student. The sound to be given to any combination of consonants can only be learned by experience.

To acquire some familiarity with the forms of the letters the student can turn to any of the vocabularies attached to the exercises, where the Turkish words are written with English characters by the side of them, and to Tale I, page 7, where the English text is given below the Turkish.

These letters have, in particular words, values differing from those given in the table :

Ụ at the end of the present participle being sounded as p.

b at the commencement of words or between two vowels is frequently sounded as d. The diphthong ,l is generally sounded as , 00, or u.

This combination may, however, be sounded as i, ev, ai, or ey.


روژ از و

8), marked as ng in the table, is frequently written as ñ. The three letters numbered 25, 26, and 27 are generally printed alike. It will be seen that I, s, »,

are never joined to the letter following them, so that in the middle of a word they have the same shape as at the end.

When J l and I a occur together they are joined as ). Turkish is read from right to left.

There is no definite article in Turkish.
The numeral bir, one, is used as the indefinite article, 'a'or'an.'

. There are two numbers, the singular and the plural. The nominative plural is formed by the addition of J ler to the nominative singular: w at, the horse ; il atler, the horses : cour kedy, the

: etmekdjiler, the bakers.

اتمكېیلر ; etmekdji, the baker انمکی : Kediler, the cats کدیلر ;cat

THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE. There are two declensions, the first for words ending in a consonant, the second for those ending in a vowel. The cases and their terminations will be understood from the following examples.

First Declension. Words ending in a consonant:



N. was goon, the day. Abiss goonler, the days.
G. oligs goonus, of the day. Waliy goonleruñ, of the days.
D. Wys gooneh, to the day. Budigs goonlereh, to the days.
Ac. oes goony, the day. slis goonlery, the days.
L. si goondeh, in the day. is lys goonlerdeh, in the days.

. Ab. we's goondan, from the day. wahbies goonlerdan, from the days.

Words ending in (sl are of the first declension: slow serai, palace; Genitive all yw serayin ; Dative www serayah, etc.: (slo tchay, a river; oltchayin, of a river. Words ending in ö and o change these letters, in forming the first four cases of the singular, into Ċ and wg, except in a few monosyllables. In the other cases and in the plural, however, the ö and ol are retained :

,Sanduggia صندغك ; the boxes صندقلرز sandlah, the box صندق .Ex

of the box: ils kalpak, the cap; seyle kalpageh, to the cap:

B 2

کوپلر ;kenpealina, of the dog کوپكك ;koupeh, the dog کوبك


keu pekler, the dogs. But cölis khalk, people; Genitive sals khalkiñ, etc. Words ending in w in general change this w into s, in all the cases of the singular, wjgi koort, the wolf; osje koorduñ, of the wolf, etc. : but in the plural the w is retained, utgö vbi, koortler, the wolves. In wl at, the horse, the w is retained,

, ,
olil atyñ, of the horse; wl ateh, to the horse, etc.
Second Declension. Words ending in a vowel :

Nominative su kapoo, the gate.
Genitive olignä kapoonus, of the gate.

egy kapooya, to the gate.
Accusative syu kapooyi, the gate.
Locative seni kapooda, in the gate.

Ablative waynä kapoodan, from the gate. The plural is formed as in the first declension : Jom kapooler,

, niñ, of the ship: Sos keupru, the bridge; slije keupruniñ, of the bridge : xbl ada, the island; oligbl adaniñ, of the island;

-goomi کمینك ;goomy, the slip کمی .kapooleraii, etc.: Ex قبولرك

,17 80000 صويك water, has ,800 صو adayeh, to the island. But اطهيه

in the genitive, instead of oligo, but all the other cases are regular. It is to be remarked that gl ev, the house, has ogl eveñ, of the house, etc., and is of the first declension.

In the Turkish grammar there are no genders. Beings of different sexes are in general distinguished by different names : Ex, Lég boogha, the bull; il inek, the cow; wg khoros, the cock; cglb ta,ouk, the hen; wl at, the horse; ülmö kisrak, the mare. When, however, there are not two words for the individuals of different sexes, they are distinguished by the use of the common name preceded by ;l er, man, and jj kiz, girl, or slö kary, woman, in the case of persons, and ou, I erkek, male, and sios dishy, female, in the case of animals.

chülejä karandash, of the same mother; wülejä, brother ;

ار اشمی ;ashdj, cook اشمی ; kia karandasla, sister قز قرنداش

er ashdjy, man-cook ; grül sli kary ashdjy, woman-cook ; ou, olul erkek eshek, a jackass; bül csês dishy eshek, a jenny.

The following cases are to be observed: juliol Inglis, the English

,Frensis فرانسز: Inglis carisy, the English woman انكليز قاریسی ;man

the Frenchman; como, los jmily Frensis carisy, the Frenchwoman. See next article.

When two substantives stand together, one describing the nature, value, quality, object or ownership of the other, the genitive case of the noun describing is used, and it is placed before the other word which has the termination (s y or cow sy added to it, according as it ends in a consonant or a vowel : costis ;j kiziñ sandughi, the girl's box; l olosl adamiñ aty, the horse of the man. Very often, however, the termination of the genitive is omitted; this is generally the case when the omission will not render the meaning doubtful : solo gl ev sahiby, the master of the house.

When one substantive denotes the material or magnitude of the other, they may be placed together in the nominative without any alteration ; as, to jos bir demir tchekidj, an iron hammer ;

durt arshin bez, four arshins of linen. It is to be remarked that the combination of words given above may be conveniently considered as single words. They are then declinable according to the rules given above :

Nom. cil olosl adamiñ aty, the horse of the man.
Gen. olin olosl adamiñ atiniñ, of the horse of the man.

Dat. wi dloul adamiñ atiya, to the horse of the man, etc. wouldwi dosl adamiñ atinin eyeri, the saddle of the man's horse.

دورت ارشین بز



برکوزل قز ; boo adem eden dir, this man is polite بو ادم ادب در

THE ADJECTIVE. The adjective in Turkish is not declined. When it is used to attribute a quality it stands before the substantive, and when as a predicate it follows; as, pul geseb ? bir doghroo adam, a just man;

bir guzel kez, a pretty girl.

The comparative is formed by strengthening the positive with the words dahe; as, was dahe booyook, greater. It is also formed by placing the word compared in the ablative case before the positive : Oyw wygl evdan booyook, larger than the house. The comparative is also formed by the use of the termination , or rek: stuleske

, old ; Wystwl eskerek, older. When the word ends in w or j, this letter is omitted in the comparative: Skutchek,

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small; Wyour kutchuruk, smaller. This manner of forming the comparative is not, however, common.

The superlative is formed by placing the particle ol pek, ol eñ, vym tchok, all meaning ‘very,' before the positive; as, gul oli aye, the best; literally, very good. It is also formed by placing the positive with a final vs or cow, according as the word ends in a consonant or a vowel, after a substantive in the genitive or ablative plural; as, cowg! O, losl ademleriñ ayesy, the best man. The following examples, exhibiting other methods for forming com

دخی زیاده ایو ;age, good ایو : paratives, should be attended to

.gus, eyeکوز .ot, grass اوت


.ates, fire اتش

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y? boo, this.

.tchorba, soup چوربا

بو .irah, far ایراق

js dir, is.


dahy ziade aye, better (literally, still more good); I wishes
djumladan aye, best (literally, than all good); sell witü shedit
illeh, with violence, very violent; iesgos atid shedit illeh
sooghook, very cold.

Apie shehir, city.

veh, and.
chi kadel, glass. döms khasta, sick.

b tabac, plate. useb toogroo, just, Uli balik, fish. lö kara, black.

straight. US kebab,roast meat.

vlak, white.

olj, reng, colour. du pireh, flea.

Us dukan, shop. ; lö kaz, goose. She sary, yellow. Wys dirler, are, for sood, milk. ja yeshel, green.

which ,- is geLl arpa, barley. nerally used. üş bitchak, knife.

Jij kizel, red.

cili katy, hard. Li fena, bad.

di tenbil, idle. JS kirlu, dirty. wol bash, head.

joj temiz, clean.

jzow semiz, fat. bol umid, hope. unt; zenguin, rich.

wlet, meat. w keuy, village. ologs kutchuk, little.

In Turkish the immediate object of the transitive verb is placed in the nominative or sometimes in the accusative case. When the verb has in addition a remote object, this is placed in the dative:


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Jo soo, water.

,sdik صوق

.borhoo, fear قورقو


jeszo sooghook,}cold.

قزه ; kia bir adam gurdy, the girl saw a man قز برادم کوردی ویردی


adam ketab kizeh verdy, the man gave the girl a book. It is to be noted that the verb is placed at the end of the sentence. See page 16.

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