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for that tyrannical owl, the wood-peckers trunks and branches of trees, in which brought presently from another part of they aid themselves by the tail, like the grove an oak ball of the size of the

creepers, and to seek their food. The aperture, and driving it tightly into the tongue also is fitted to serve in obtaining hole, withdrew to another hollow tree, their food: the branches of the hyoid leaving the bird of prey hermetically bone are greatly elongated backwards, sealed up.

and in front move as in a sheath, while After several days, when we started to these birds to run and climb on the return to San Buenaventura, the ball was still in the hole, and the wood-peckers, settled in their new home, were going about their business as if there had never been a tecolote to disturb their peace.

They usually go in pairs and are extremely solitary in their habits, even the male and female doing their labor separately unless some disturbance such as that described necessitates their united efforts. Their powers of flight are very moderate, and the keel of the breast bone is small. The toes are in pairs, two before and two behind, with sharp, strong claws; the bill is rather long, straight and wedge-shaped, with a hard a peculiar arrangement and development tip, the tip and sides compressed; the of muscles enables them to extend the tail is lengthened and rigid ; the verte- tongue far beyond the bill, its tip being brae of the neck are greatly developed, horny and furnished with barbed filaand the last of the caudal vertebrae is ments, while its surface is covered with very large, with a long ridge-like spinous a glutinous saliva, secreted by two large process; the whole structure adapting glands. Such briefly is our Carpintero.

Inez De Campo.


ON July 12th the The OVERLAND MONTHLY is a “Home InManufacturers and dustry.” It is and has been published twentyProducers Associa- eight years in this city and its pages are a veritable tion of California, mine of literature booming the industries of the of which the OVER- State. Every dollar it has made from all sources, LAND MONTHLY foreign and domestic, has been spent in this city. PUBLISHING CO. It can show in its letter books that it has been is a member, held a the cause of bringing hundreds of families and mass meeting at thousands of dollars in investments to the State. Metropolitan Hall. Illustrated articles have been devoted to the United States Sen- canning industry, the wine industry, the raisin,

ator Perkins, Con- the beet-root sugar, the oyster, the woolen cloth, gressman Maguire, Henry T. Scott, and others the blooded-horse, the fruit-growing, the mining, addressed the meeting in behalf of protecting and the ship building, and half a dozen more, without patronizing “Home Industries.” It was clearly charge, simply for the good of all concerned. shown by the several speakers that manufactories of all kinds in this State and on this Coast were

WHAT is the result? The languishing for want of home patronage, and


magazine has a larger subthe money of the Coast was going abroad for


scription list on the Atlantic supplies that could be made as good and as


Coast than on the Pacific. cheaply right here in our midst, if people would

It has almost as large a cironly give them a trial.

culation in London as it has Instances were cited where the Manufacturers in San Francisco. Of all the manufactories and Producers Association had interested them- and Producers (not agents or merchants) on this selves in the giving of contracts for marble, Coast it has in thirty-eight pages of advertising stone, brick, iron, etc., and influenced the pur- matter just three small advertisements, one half a chaser to buy in the home market instead of page altogether. In other words, if it were not from the representatives of Eastern firms. Sen- for the foreign advertisers, whose goods we are ator Perkins adorned a tale and pointed a moral bound by our Association to practically boycott, by calling up the case of the Pacific Mail Steam- the OVERLAND would not be able to live. ship Company awarding the contract for build- We have gone to our woolen cloth manufacing the steamship Peru to the Union Iron Works turers and offered them our pages and good will. of this city, and the steamship China to an They accept the good will but refuse to pay one English firm. In the one instance the money cent for it even in trade, -"times are too hard. went into the pockets of our citizens in the other They are glad of our trade and we give it to into those of another nation.

them cheerfully, but when they advertise they The audience cheered the sentiments, and the prefer to reach out for Eastern custom and ad. speakers promised that the Association would vertise in an Eastern magazine. The history of favor home industries to the exclusion of Eastern one industry is the history of nearly all; they and foreign, and urged the newspapers to call are pleased at mass meeting and editorials on all good citizens to do likewise. We left the booming their goods, but when they go to the hall determined to do our small share toward the newstand they patronize New York every time furtherance of so good a cause. Then we began in preference to San Francisco. The OVERLAND to take the campaign home to our business. is discarded for “Munsey's," or some other ten cent picture book. As a member of the Manu- might almost say the problem) is, what kind of facturers and Producers Association we believe training should be given to the young, especially in Mr. Blaine's doctrine of reciprocity and “ that to boys and young men. deeds go farther than words.”

In emphasizing boys' education your committee

would not be thought, for one moment, to underA Theory of Christian Education.

value in any way the necessary training of young [THE fact that education is before so many

women; but girls, thank God, are as yet more minds in this summer season, when parents are or less under home influence. Notwithstanding making up their minds what to do with their

the advanced views of some would-be leaders of boys and girls for the coming school year, is the OVERLAND'S reason for complying with a re

the sex, an old-time wisdom throws around the quest that has been made to it to reprint, for

young girl's life staid and wholesome restraints, wider than a Church audience, a report adopted which late sad records of crime have demonstrated by the Convention of the Episcopal Church of can only be broken over to the imminent danger the Diocese of California, held in Los Angeles, in May, 1895. It was prepared by Doctor E. B.

of womanliness and purity. But with boys and Spalding, chairman of the committee on Christian young men the case is different. From their very Education. Doubtless there will be many that nature they seek freedom from restraint, and are will dissent from his views, but to open discussion

thrown at the earliest moment possible out into a on this important subject is in itself worth while.)

world never

more full of a feverish mental YOUR committee in their report to the last activity than now. Home restraints have never Diocesan Convention upon Christian Education rested more lightly upon them than at the present. claimed that our Church schools were no abnormal At a time when character is forming, when a creations, existing in a kind of hothouse atmos- future manhood for good or for evil is being dephere of sectarian prejudices, but were a com- veloped, when temptations to self-gratification modity legitimately placed upon the educational were never stronger ; by the wretched divisions market to meet a public demand. Perhaps no among Christian people, a sense of religious more satisfactory demonstration of this fact could obligation is being weakened, skepticism and be desired, than the success of these institutions unbelief are in the very air, and these young in California during the past two years; years lives, the hope of the future, socially, politically, which have tried the Pacific Coast financially, religiously, are oftentimes being thrown out into as never before in the memory of her people. It this troubled atmosphere like vessels in a storm is a little surprising that when economy has been without moorings. That a kind of degeneracy the order of the day, with the wealthy as well as should be the result is not at all surprising. with the poorer classes, – when not only churches While there is the manly young life all about us, and charities, but all lines of trade and commerce, while much that is manly and strong obtains by have suffered as they have of late, that our Church a kind of hereditary force, yet two types of a schools have held their own, and this side by new young man are becoming painfully apparent. side with public eleemosynary institutions. It is One has for its essential characteristic a kind of still more surprising that in many cases these dudishness so effeminate as to be absolutely private enterprises have had an increase of stu- exasperating. The other is too often marked by dents with a corresponding increase of income. a boasted knowledge of evil, a viciousness, This success, then, is a suggestive fact, of which veneered (it may be) by society manners and there is but one rational explanation.

society ways, but which at once excites at fear and No mere religious prejudice, or narrow spirit of disgust. However indifferent the general public social exclusiveness, will account for it. It may be to these signs ominous for the future, means, if it means anything, that there is a parents and guardians, who have to face a growing public demand for private and especially responsibility for the young, are being roused to for Church schools. As to the cause of this de- the dangers that beset those bound to them by ties mand people will probably differ ; but that the of kindred and affection. demand exists and is becoming more or less gen- However interesting new opinions and views eral, may not be denied. Time does not permit to may be upon the subject of education as a matter enter into any extended explanation of the root of theory, fathers and mothers are beginning to causes of this growing public sentiment, but your demand practical results. committee ventures to suggest one or two When a child is drifting maybe into bad comthoughts, which certainly are worthy of consi- panionship ; when he begins to affect lines of deration.

thought and modes of life, which the commonest One of the gravest problems of the day (one experience tells can lead only to a wreckage and

ruin, parents will never be satisfied with any which beset public institutions may largely be mere theories for their children. And so, if your eliminated ; here the individual life may be cared committee read rightly the signs of the times, for ; here Christian influences necessarily denied fathers and mothers are beginning to turn anx- elsewhere may strengthen the young life and iously to old paths and old ways; to methods of keep it from evil. training that have given to the world the noblest Secondary schools should be established and lives of the past, that they may well believe, will endowed, in which the most careful and intelreproduce such lives in the present. The prayer lectual training should be given. There should be of nine tenths of the parents today is simply a moral and religious culture to keep the young life this: “That their children may be saved from true and upright. There should be training of the contamination of evil and vice all about the body in gymnasium and on field by all manly them.” They tell you that they wish their boys sports to make it a fit habitation for a strong to become manly, brave, conscientious; their brave soul. And then, when the preparation for daughters to be pure, gentle, womanly. This to college and university is completed, when the them is necessary, far more necessary than any youth, the peer of any intellectually and bodily, mere training of the mind. Parents are willing (as the superior of many, in that he is not ashamed never before) to lay aside religious prejudices; to confess Christ before men, goes up to the willing to sacrifice and economize; willing to higher walk of learning, what then? give of their means freely, if they can only see In all of our great universities there should be their children developing properly, not simply established a hall which might be the home of their minds, but growing in self-control, in self- the Christian student. respect. In other words, if they can but see them It is a terra incognita, to which fancy and tra“increasing in wisdom and stature, and in favor dition give an almost indescribable fascination. with God and man.” This is a crying de- To him accustomed to the wholesome restraints mand in the educational market today. Our of the preparatory training, the freedom the unipublic system of education, grand in its versity offers becomes an almost priceless privitheory, munificent in its appointments, is doing lege. It is a recognition (so he often regards it) all in its power to meet this demand, but it has all of his manhood, of his power and ability to but insuperable difficulties to encounter. It is take care of himself, which is flattering in compelled to gather many young lives together in the extreme. Oftentimes (a mere boy in years, a mass, good, bad, and indifferent. It can make with little or no knowledge of the world no distinctions. In the large numbers thus and its temptations) he suddenly finds himgrouped together there is little opportunity to self foot-free and hand-free, with little control deal other than with the mass. It rarely can over him other than that of the class room. give that individual training so' necessary to the Encouraged not infrequently by an ill-judged proper development of character. To be just also, mental stimulus to regard an irreverent free religious influences must be eliminated from the thought as a mark of his manhood, he is tempted system, – the mighty power of prayer, the grace to deal with the most sacred mysteries of life, of of the Sacraments, the wisdom that comes from mind, soul. and body, in a way which would be the reading and studying of God's Word. almost amusing were it not so pitiable. Amid

Feebly Christian parents are striving to supple new associations, in contact with currents of ment a purely secular system of education of five thought utterly unfamiliar, and yet which appeal days in the week by the religious training of to his pride and self-assertion, he is led all but Sunday schools ; to substitute a special hotbed unconsciously to regard the restraints of home as Sunday instruction for what should be an unin- puerile ; the prayers his mother taught him as terrupted Christian atmosphere of home, school, childish ; the faith once delivered to the saints as a and church, in which the young life should dwell medieval superstition ; and his young eyes often to be properly developed. Against this Sunday turn to possibly skeptical teaching, from some training the boy (more often) revolts, to follow- professorial chair, as infallible, while he throws the example of many a father who does not go to aside the Bible of his youth. Is it any wonder church himself, but who fondly hugs the delusion that young lives under such circumstances often that his boy will follow the fatherly advice rather drift into a kind of lawlessness and recklessness, than the fatherly example. And so parents with skepticism and tacit denial of the faith? (especially mothers) are turning to private, more A higher education is demanded, and it is right often Church schools, if the advantage they seek that it should be provided. It must be accommay be had for their children. Here difficulties panied by a larger liberty of thought and action.

But Christian men and women often throw lives dearer than their own under such influences, with scarcely a thought of, or an effort for, the protection so much needed.

There should be in every great university of our land a Hall erected, the home for those who need (never more so) the influence of the Christian family. It should not be intended for divinity students – this training comes later - but for undergraduates. It should be a building suitable in all its appointments for a young man's life, with its bedrooms and adjoining studies; with its reading room provided with the best periodicals of the day; with its library stored with the choicest reference books. It should have its well ordered dining-room, its gymnasium, its billiard-room, its smoking-room (if you will), for it is sometimes wise to avoid side issues. There should be suitable endowe ments by which expenses could be reduced to a nominal fee. Such a University Hall should be officered in the wisest manner possible; first by a Head or Father, not connected with the university; a man of wisdom, experience, and of a personal magnetism which would draw young men to him, not so much by rigid rules and regulations as by a personal respect and affection. There should be the Matron or Mother of the establishment, a lady, wise to guide the household, one who by an all but unconscious influence should teach that the highest type of manhood is a gentle manhood. There should be tutors able and ready to give that assistance in the preparation of university work often so much needed by young men to avail themselves of the full advantage of the wisdom of class room and lecture. In other words, the University Hall should be a refined and Christian home of learning, a kind of scholarly gymnasium where the young man might, amid gentlemanly surroundings, be taught to use his mental and moral equipments in the defense of what is good and pure, as the youth is taught with boxing gloves the manly art of defense of his person. One may not estimate the advantage in a day like this, when skepticism is attacking the strongholds of the faith, of such homes in the


busiest centers of the active thought of the age, in the university life. It would be something for a young man all untrained in the fence and and guard of polemics of the day, to be able to bring his religious troubles and doubts to one wise to counsel and advise, as the head of such a home should be. To have (when may be the divinity of his Master was attacked as if it were some new discovery of the immense knowledge of this 19th century) some one who could quietly step to his library, take down some volume of the past, and show that the attack is no new thing, that it is as old as Christ and Gnosticism. That the battle was fought out in the year 325, at the Council of Nice, and Christianity conquered. That Christ is God of God, light of light, very God of very God. That this marvelous discovery of the 19th century is simply the revamping of an old heresy, and its resurrection is all the more humiliating that the enemy assumes the ignorance of the Christian of today. And so of other attacks on the Bible and Christ and Christianity; that they are only modern attempts to raise old and dead issues, to thrash out again old straw. Who can tell the strength to young life thus guarded, thus trained to watch and ward in the defense of the blessed Master, in the very midst of the intense mental activity of our great universities? There will be — believe it - a special blessing upon the man or the woman who devotes something of his or her wealth to such a cause as this.

Your committee has tried in a simple way thus to present before the Church in this Diocese what might be done; an ideal, towards which we might work on educational lines. The Anglican communion has ever gloried in her educational work. The great Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, her great public schools of Eton and Rugby, of Harrow and Winchester, and others, are noble monuments to her zeal. Her American daughter can not do better than to imitate the mother.


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