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mathematician, very rapid in his calcula- If, for instance, forty-five to fifty grains tion as well as absolutely correct. Every- of smokeless powder is necessary for thing pertaining to the chronograph must killing pigeons or large game birds, forty work harmoniously. The battery should to forty-five grains with less wadding be of a known power, and the current will answer the purpose of breaking the flow with a continuous regularity. The flying target under all conditions of wind wires at the muzzle of the gun should and weather. be of the same thickness, and the muzzle Since we have spoken of velocities, it of the weapon itself at precisely the same may be instructive to know something distance from the target at each dis- of pressures at the breech of the shell charge. A foot variation in this respect chamber, at which point the greatest would make a surprising difference in strain in the barrel is usually exerted at the time of the flight of the load when the instant of discharge. As it is imwe consider that with a velocity of say possible in the space here allowed, to 900 to 940 feet per second an ounce and print the tables necessary for comparison a quarter of shot will travel thirty yards with all the powders, we must simply be in a little less than the eleventh part of satisfied with an illustration. a second. Eight hundred and fifty feet Taking for instance five shots each, per second is a developed force great of the Dupont, E. C., and Gold Dust enough to kill any game for which the powders,

powders, with the shells wadded to shotgun is intended, and anything be- obtain fair velocities for most any puryond this is, of course, advantageous, pose pertaining to field and trap shooting, adding, as it surely does, to the power Dupont gave 879 feet velocity with 7440 of the gun,- providing always that to pounds bursting strain, the load being obtain the higher velocities the breech 374 drams or 40 grains, and 196 ounce of pressure is kept far below the bursting No. 7 shot. E. C. gave 851 feet velocity strain.

with 7584 pounds bursting strain, the The pigeon shooter desires above all load being 374 drams or 44 grains and things what is called a killing load, and 116 ounce of No. 7 shot. Gold Dust is constantly studying to increase the gave 928 feet velocity, with a pressure power of his gun. Hence he uses at the breech of 5266 pounds, the load charge proportioned to develop the great being 2 drams or 45 grains with 116 est force to the shot charge. At the ounces of No. 7 shot. pigeon shootings of today the average The chronographic readings on the velocity is undoubtedly 920 to 945 feet Dupont and E. C. herein mentioned, were per second for thirty yards. Twelve to taken at random from a report published in fifteen years ago a score of seventy-five a recent Forest and Stream. The chronoto eighty-five pigeons out of one hundred graphic and pressure gauge readings was considered most excellent, and it on the Gold Dust are taken at random was only the experts of that time who from a report at the office of the United could score so high. Today such scorers States Smokeless Powder Company. would not win, for, with the improved By changing the wadding to thin, thick, ammunition and the modern hammerless extra thick, or combining same; decreasgun, ninety to ninety-five per cent of ing or increasing the shot charge, using the birds killed is considered a top score. more or less powder in connection with

For inanimate target shooting high vel- the multitude of styles of wadding, the ocities are not considered indispensable. pressures and velocities are directly


affected thereby, fifty grains of E. C. and Gold Dust will do the same if the will give, say, a pressure of 7000 pounds quantity of powder and number and qualand a compensating velocity of 930 to ity of wads is used to produce the same 945 feet 1'8 ounce No. 7 shot. Dupont results as nearly as possible.

W. L. Colville.

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IF THE good people that obscene prints. The devoting of two whole

have done so good a work The

pages a day to a crime, repeated day after day,
against the obscene pictures

illustrated in every detail as carefully as a church
and penny-dreadful in art and

wedding, magnifies the crime until it becomes
literature would only turn honorable. We need censors of the press with
their eyes on the columns of

power to impose fines large enough to make such the San Francisco press, they would discover a exhibitions unprofitable. A Sunday school lesstate of things that should call for their earnest

son once a week can do little to combat such condemnation. How many thousand upon thous broadcast demoralization. It is no excuse for ands of words and dozens of drawings the Chroni an educated newspaper owner to plead that his cle, Examiner, and Call, have devoted to the trial of

paper is what the public makes it. Durrant the man Durrant we will not even waste a might hide behind the same specious argument. guess. Suffice to say that for a month we have

As long as filth pays better than cleanliness the been glutted with the history of a bloody crime, newspapers will pander to the filthy. which in small boys' and gushing girls' eyes has become through its newspaper notoriety an

UNITED STATES Senator act of heroism. The intelligent public has been ignored and the news of the world sacrificed that

William M. Stewart, the

The the scandal-loving, sensation-seeking readers

leader of the Silver Party in

Silver may have their fill. But this is not the worst Knights.

Congress, has organized a phase of the question. It is the effect that the

secret society styled the “Silnarration of crime always has on young and

ver Knights of America,” of weak minds. Nothing worse appears in the

which he is President. Its organ is The Silver Police Gazette of New York or the Police News of

Knight, published in Washington, of which Sen London than what appears from day to day in

ator Stewart appears not only as editor but chief the city press re the Durrant Trial, and yet the

editorial writer. The plan of the society is out

lined in the Silver Knight :United States mails refuse to carry either of

TO THE PUBLIC:-This Order was organized these papers. Purveyors of criminal garbage

for the purpose of combining into one great orshould be as subject to the law as the hawker of ganization those of our citizens who are in favor


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of the equal coinage of gold and silver, as was provided for in the laws in force prior to the demonetization act of 1873. It is nonpartisan as to party politics and aims to work through all political parties.

Then the argument following goes on to sum up the situation very concisely:

The election occurring in 1896 will substantially settle the condition of all industrial pursuits in this country. If we can succeed in electing a Congress and a President who are in favor of the rehabilitation of silver to equal coinage, it will insure to this country a period of financial prosperity which it has not known for over twenty years.

If the single gold standard party shall succeed in electing a President and Congress favorable to their ideas, the doom of liberty will be sealed. Give them four years more intrenchment in power and they will have destroyed the people to the extent that by impoverishment, want, hunger, the citizen will have largely lost his individuality; his independence will have waned, and a condition gradually sinking to serfdom will have taken possession of his mind, and as hard times continue, hunger and want becoming the familiar companion of the family hearthstone, liberty will die, and with it will be established a moneyed aristocracy which will

own the body of labor. The picture of an English mother, working at an iron forge, hammering iron and making nails from early dawn to late at night,

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for $1.27 a week, will become familiar in this country, if the Rothschilds of England and their myrmidons in America succeed in fastening upon us permanently the gold standard as the only fundamental money of our country. This is a work which every friend of his country and of his kind should need no urging to enlist in, untiringly, unceasingly, perpetually, until the close of the evening of the Presidential election in 1896.

If the Silver Party honestly believes that the above will be the condition of affairs after '96 in case a “gold-bug” is made President, they will do well to choose carefully their standard bearers for the campaign. Unknown men like their mushroom candidate Sibley of Pennsylvania, freaks like Peffer of Kansas, cranks like Waite of Colorado, or demagogues like Altgeldt of Illinois, will only bring their fond dreams to the earth and the realities of ridicule. Let them nominate Senator Stewart for President on a silver platform free from Woman Suffrage, Prohibition, and attendant rot, and “The Silver Knights of America ” will find their knighthood honorable and useful. The silver idea will win if it is not loaded down by short-haired women and long-haired men. It is to be hoped that it will have a chance.

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the carefully guarded child of aristocratic parents, the “nihilistic wife" of a frowzy student, student herself at the universities of Heidelberg and Berlin, a Doctor of Philosophy with honors in mathematics, a privat docent and finally a full professor of mathematics at the University of

Sonia Kovalevsky. 1. Memoir. By A. C. Leffler (Edgren), Duchessa Di Cajanello. Reminiscences of Childhood, written by Herself. Translated into English by Louise Von Cassel. New York: Macmillan & Company: 1895. For sale by Wm. Doxey. $1.25.


Stockholm. Moreover, she was the author of poems, published locally and in Eastern maga novels and of plays which, by themselves, would zines, and by certain clever skits, printed chiefir have given her a high rank; and finally, she in the San Francisco Examiner. Her work is all was the heroine of dramas played out by her of it bright, conscientious, and readable. But own passions in her own heart, and each of even with so much of an introduction to the readthese nas was in its way a master-work. ing public it cannot but be considered flattering

The book under review is a remarkable one to so young a Californian, to have a leading in each of three respects and it is interesting in a publishing house like the Putnams bring out hundred others. In the first place, it gives the two of her books at nearly the same time. most vivid picture possible of the interior of one A reading of An Unlessoned Girl, the book here of those Russian homes of the gentry which to be noticed, justifies the judgment of the pubTurgeneff and Tolstoi have painted – but no lishers, for the story will undoubtedly make a better. And it gives the life-like image of the multitude of friends for itself. It is a girl's story wave of aspiration, discontent, effort, which of boarding school life in New York. The heroswept over young Russia in the years 1860-1870. ine is a girl in the “green apple” stage, unhappy The birth of the new woman of Russia is there re- in her home life because her strength of character counted. In the second place, we have the history and abundant energy are too cabined in the of the rise of a mathematical talent of a very narrow bounds of poor home in a small town. high order. Sonya Kovalevsky's name will be She meets with her opportunity by the act of a ranked along with the few women mathemati- cousin, a wealthy young New Yorker, who re cians,— Maria Agnesi, etc. Her talent came by pays an obligation to her dead father by sending descent from one of her maternal grandfathers. the girl to a good boarding school in New York and finally, her literary and dramatic successes City. were the record of a most remarkable life spent Of course there are many tribulations in this

and vainly spent-in la chasse au bonheur. sudden transplanting, but Margy comes through Her happiness was wrecked on the rocks of a them all and is successfully pruned and trained prodigious self-will.

into shape for Vassar College, with the approval With all these adventures and successes her and love of the reader. Not that there are not some life was a melancholy failure, and she knew it signs of inexperience in the book. It is a little vague to be such. Even her scientific achievements as to places and devoid of local color, for the reawere but the masterly working out of ideas de- son probably that the scene is laid in New York, rived from her teachers. It is difficult to conceive rather than in San Francisco or San Leandro, how she could have been more cruel and unre- the places that Miss Tompkins may be supposed gardful of her parents and of her child. Her in- to know best. The slangy tone of much of the tense passionate desire was for the two things conversation, too, it is to be hoped, would be which Balzac strove for all his laborious years – more appropriate to the uncultured West than to to be famous, and to be loved. She attained New York. both, as he did, to the uttermost. But her life But there is no question but that Miss Tompended, as it began, in wretchedness; while his kins knows girls, their feelings, their aspirations, was nobly satisfied. The man had cast out and their peculiarities. These she clearly brings selfhood; the woman fastened the demon of out in her careful study of Margy, Louise, and self-will in her very vitals.

their friends. This melancholy book, by a woman of genius, about her own development, is a document of pre

A New View of Invention.” cious value in the new questions which arise today. There is nothing new in the solution, but

MR. W. H. SMYTH, manager of the late Methe experiment was made on noble material, with

chanics' Fair, and a consulting mechanical enmany noble aspirations, and its utter failure is

gineer, has written an interesting brochure on all the more signal for this reason.

Is tbe Inventive Faculty a Myth? His position is a

novel one. He thinks that invenon is simply An Unlessoned Girl.1

the putting together of facts before known ac.

cording to laws that are subject o study and Miss TOMPKIN'S work has begun to be known classification,- that there might, in short, be a to Californian readers by a number of plea sing “school of invention,” in which problems

1 An Unlessoned Girl. By Elizabeth Knight Tompkins. PIs the Inventive Faculty a Myth? BW. H. Smyth. New York: Geo. P. Putnam's Sons: 1895.

Reprinted from The Engineering Magazine. August, 185. 'The Works of Edgar Allan Poe. Vol. 1. Chicago: Stone & Kimball: 1894.

The Mountains of California.

might be given, and each of the class expected to arrive at substantially the same solution.

In this view he traverses all the opinions of the doctors; for even the Supreme Court has held that it is the evidence of "the inventive faculty " that gives validity to a patent. Now to resolve “ the inventive faculty” into the ordinary exercise of common sense, — with nothing of ** inspiration ” about it, to make it a part of the mental equipment that has been irregular and spasmodic in its exhibition only because it has never been systematically cultivated in most people, is Mr. Smyth's attempt. He backs it up by the claim that he himself, "invents” to order in his ordinary business as a consulting mechanical engineer.

And yet we are not entirely convinced. To bring it into another field, wherein OVERLAND readers are supposed to be more at home, – Mr. Smyth's position is like that of one who should assert that there is no such thing as literary invention, that “genius " plays no part in the creation of masterpieces, - that it might be con ceived that a class could be formed and so trained in literary work that, given the same materials of old tradition that Shakspere had, each member of it could produce something quite similar to Hamlet or Macbeth.

Possibly so, – unquestionably they could be so trained as to do something of value with the materials, and yet there has been but one Shakspere in the world, and he had but little training that we can discover. So there is but one Edison,- though, no doubt, the electrical courses in our universities and technical schools will result in multitudes of minor inventions about electricity.

PROFESSOR JOHN MUIR has put in print the record of a lifetime of wanderings and observation in and about the mountains of California. As a naturalist and geologist the author ranks at the head, and as an observer of the things above the head and beneath the feet, he equals Thoreau. It is a wonderland that the reader invades, even the Californian who has spent his life among the mountains, as he listens to the author's stories of the Sierra, of glaciers, snow, passes, lakes, meadows, forests, storms, flowers, and inhabitants. It makes one long to go as Mr. Muir has into a great redwood forest or into the depths of a cañon and study and watch nature, Each tree has an individuality, each mountain slope a meaning, after one has looked upon them through Professor Muir's eyes. His studies of the Douglas squirrel, the water ouzel, wild sheep, and bees, are revelations. They make the reader wonder if he has been going through the world with his eyes shut.

The book should not only be in every school library in California, but it should be in every home within the entire range of the grand old Sierra Nevada. It is the most valuable work of its kind that has ever been penned by a Californian. It is handsomely bound and illustrated.

Memoirs of a Minister of France.3

A New Edition of Poe.'

BY FAR the handsomest and most complete edition of the works of Edgar Allan Poe that has appeared has been brought out by the firm of Stone & Kimball of Chicago. It is newly coldected and edited, with a memoir, critical introduction, and notes, by Edmund Clarence Stedman and George Edward Woodberry. The illustrations are by Albert Edward Sterner. It is in ten volumes. Little more can be said in commendation of the work than the bare mention of its editors and reference to its general excellence, as mere repetition adds nothing. It is printed on uncut parchment and bound in blue silk with design in gold. It is both an ornament and a necessity to every library.

From the Memoirs of a Minister of France is a collection of court tales of the time of Henry of Navarre, related by his Prime Minister, Duke de Sully, who as M. de Rosny the readers of Mr. Weyman's powerful novel, “A Gentleman of France,” learned to admire for the very qualities which made him invaluable to his royal master. The adventures, gallantries, plots, and happenings, of Henry's court are related in a quiet, slow, quaint fashion that becomes both the age and dignity of the narrator. They relate principally to attempts on the King's life or honor, both growing out of the troublesome condition of the times and the jealousy of the Queen. While none of them are as exciting as certain passages in any of the author's former novels they contain an interest that is hard to explain. Possibly Mr. Weyman has striven more to make the stories appear truthful than exciting. If so

VOL. Xxvi. — 35.

2 The Mountains of California. By John Muir. New York: The Century Company: 1894.

3From the Memoirs of a Minister of France. By Stanley J. Weyman. New York: Longmans, Green, & Co.: 1895.

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