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unfortunately for himself and his cause, mandrite loassaf was recalled to Irkutsk the Father fell a victim to the charms of to be consecrated a Bishop. He was full an Ilyamna girl who visited his house of pride at his new dignity, which he one night. But despite his deep shame, thought would overcome all opposition on he persevered in his preaching against the part of the traders. On the voyage polygamy, and baptized the chief's from Siberia he formed the most sanguine brother, his three wives and seven children. He continued to urge the chief to marry one of his wives and put away the others, until he made him very angry. At last the Father was attacked by several natives and wounded. Later the attack was renewed, and as he made no effort to escape or defend himself, he was soon killed. It was said that, after he had been killed, he rose again and advanced towards his assailants, who attacked him afresh, and finally cut him to pieces. His native boy, Nikita, escaped with his papers and diary, which he conveyed to Father Veniaminof.

Another member of the mission, the monk Herman, established a school on Spruce Island (or Yealoonie, as the Russian Creoles call it) in the harbor of St. Paul, and lived there for more than forty years, structing the youth in Christian doctrine, trade, and agriculture. The other members of the mission



remained with the Archimandrite loassaf.

When Shelikof died, the missionaries lost their principal friend, and no further effort was made to enlarge their sphere of work until the Archi


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and ambitious plans for building up a ever been ill-treated by them. They Russian Church in America, but these received Christianity very readily, and were cut short by the foundering of the once they had accepted it, abandoned Phenix, with all on board, at an un- Shamanism and all their former religious known point not far from her destina- beliefs and practises. And though there tion. The Archimandrite Makar and the were no service-books or books of the deacon Stefan, who were in the suite of Bible translated into the native tongue, the Bishop, perished with him. Of the and no priest permanently resident other members of the mission the Arch- among them for thirty years after Makar's imandrite Afanassy, was priest at Kadiak first coming, their conversion remained till 1825, and then returned to Irkutsk, permanent. This remarkable fact is to as Nakar had done nineteen years be explained by the following circumearlier. The remaining two died at stances: first, the Aleuts were a people Kadiak, the monk loassaf in 1823, and of good disposition, and so naturally inthe monk Herman in 1837.

In 1805 Rezanoff, a Russian of good birth, was appointed by the Russian Emperor as a Plenipotentiary to report on the affairs of the Russian-American Company. Like many other men of the world before and since, he was not much impressed with the value of mission work in the colonies. He said that the missionaries lived in idleness, and were the cause of much trouble and confusion through that meddlesome spirit which seems characteristic of ecclesiastics in all times and places, and which is perhaps inevitable in men of their calling and professions. He said also that few of the clergy took the pains to learn the native language, and attributed the favorable reports of loassaf to the fact that he owned fifteen shares of stock in the Russian-American Company.

The missionaries succeeded better among the Aleuts than among any other Alaskan Indians. It was in 1795 that the first missionary, Father Makar, visited Oonalashka. Accompanied by only a single servant, he traveled over the whole district, being fed and protected by the natives. In a few years nearly all the Aleuts were baptized and reported to the Holy Synod as Christians. From that time to the present day, no representative of the Russian Church has


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clined to religion ; next, they were dissatisfied with their own beliefs, and felt a contempt for their shamans. Besides, they were eager to please the Russians, and the acceptance of Christianity relieved them from the payment of tribute.

After Baranof had re-organized the settlement of New Archangel, or Sitka, he asked for a resident priest, and in 1816 Alexei Sokolef arrived. When the charter of the Russian-American Company was renewed in 1821, one of the conditions being that a sufficient number of priests should be maintained in the colonies, the company petitioned that priests should be sent out from Russia. Accordingly, in 1823, the priest Mordovsky, with two missionary monks, arrived in Kadiak; in 1824 Ivan Veniaminof landed at Oonalashka, and in 1825 Yakof Netzvetof, a Creole, took charge of the church at Atkha, his native place. Yakof rendered valuable services to the cause of Christianity, transcribing Veniaminof's translations of the Gospels and catechism from the dialect of Oonalashka into that of Atkha. Veniaminof was the ablest and greatest

Church in the colonies numbered 10,561 of all the Russian priests in America. communicants, of whom 8,532 were naHe at once set himself to the task of ac- tives. Other authorities give 8,532 as quiring the Aleutian language, and as soon the total number of Christians, of whom as he could, translated into it several more than 7,000 were Indians. books dealing with the doctrines of the proof that the preaching of Christianity Greek Church. He was exceedingly was not wholly without good results, it is energetic and spread the influence of his stated that in 1827 there were seven illeChurch over a wide area. He visited all gitimate births among the Aleuts, while the Aleutian islands, and traveled exten- for the twelve following years there was sively on the mainland. A Russian writer an annual average of one. states that in 1827, less than three years In 1840, towards the close of Kupafter Veniaminof's arrival, the Greek rianof's term of office as governor of the


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new diocese, assuming the name of Innocentius. On his return he went to live at Sitka, where a cathe: dral was built. Hitherto the savage Koloshes living round Sitka had showi themselves utterly irresponsive to

the teachings of Christianity, submitting to the rite of baptism only on condition of re

ceiving presents of toRussian colonies in America, by order of bacco, blankets, calico, knives, and occathe Holy Synod the four churches and sionally rifles. But Veniaminof labored eight chapels then existing there were among them with marked success. He consolidated into an independent diocese. mastered the Kolosh language, and transHitherto they had been attached to the lated into it some hymns, a catechism, and see of Irkutsk in Siberia, but now the several books of the New Testament. He diocese of Russian America included the established at Sitka a seminary, where Kamchatka and Okhotsk precincts. Ven. many of the Creole priests and readers iaminof was summoned to Irkutsk, and now officiating in Alaska received their edthere consecrated the first Bishop of the ucation. Sir Edward Belcher described


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him as a very formidable, athletic man, to be used by the Aleuts. That he was about forty-five years of age, and stand- a man of liberal mind is shown by the ing in his boots about six feet three inches; fact that he welcomed a Lutheran clergyquite herculean and very clever." Sir man who came to Sitka during his adGeorge Simpson, who met him in 1842, ministration. He was recalled to Russia, was equally struck by his physical pro- and made Primate of the Russian Church: portions and mental ability. He had he was more than ninety years old when great influence with the natives and even he died in 1879. His influence dependmiracles were ascribed to him. He ing, as it did, upon his own strong perserved as priest and missionary in Rus- sonality, did not long survive his departure sian America for nineteen years, from from the colonies. 1823 to 1842, for most of which period he The first chapel in Russian America lived at Oonalashka, where he made him- was built in 1795 at St. Paul, Kadiak. self thoroughly familiar with the language, No church was built at Sitka until 1817, customs, and beliefs of the Aleuts. After- the officials of the Russian-American wards he published a book in three vol- Company performing the religious cereumes, entitled “Letters concerning the monies up to that time. Occasionally a islands of the Oonalashka district,” which priest visited the settlements, and bapshows his intimate acquaintance with all tisms took place pretty often. In 1817 a matters concerning the Aleuts, their church, dedicated to St. Peter, was built manners, habits, legends, and traditions. on St. Paul, one of the Pribylof group, He also published a grammar of one of the and in 1833 one dedicated to St. George dialects of the Aleutian language, and the Victor was built on the island of St. translated from the Russian, a “ Guide George, another of the same group. In on the Road to the Heavenly Kingdom," 1826 a church was dedicated at OonVOL. xxvi.—39.


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