## Computer Games IILong before the advent of the electronic computer, man was fascinated by the idea of automating the thought processes employed in playing games of skill. The very first chess "Automaton" captured the imagination oflate eighteenth century Vienna, and by the early 1900s there was a genuine machine that could play the chess endgame of king and rook against a lone king. Soon after the invention of the computer, scientists began to make a serious study of the problems involved in programming a machine to play chess. Within a decade this interest started to spread, first to draughts (checkers) and later to many other strategy games. By the time the home computer was born, there had already been three decades of research into computer games. Many of the results of this research were published, though usually in publications that are extremely difficult (or even impossible for most people) to find. Hence the present volumes. Interest in computers and programming has now reached into almost every home in the civilized world. Millions of people have regular access to computers, and most of them enjoy playing games. In fact, approximately 80 percent of all software sold for use on personal computers is games software. |

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Each of the

partially by the percentage of wins the computer has achieved with that strategy .

These

positive ...

Each of the

**four**strategies is represented by a weight which is determinedpartially by the percentage of wins the computer has achieved with that strategy .

These

**four**weights are called S . 1 , S . 2 , S . 3 , and S . 4 ; they may be eitherpositive ...

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( b ) The

capturing the single black stone in Figure 1 ( a ) by playing on all of its liberties .

From Iwamoto ( 1972 ) . when the game ends wins . The game board is a 19 x 19

grid ...

( b ) The

**four**liberties for the stone are also indicated . ( c ) The results ofcapturing the single black stone in Figure 1 ( a ) by playing on all of its liberties .

From Iwamoto ( 1972 ) . when the game ends wins . The game board is a 19 x 19

grid ...

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An upper bound on the total number of positions which contain

be calculated in the same manner .

constricted to lie on a line , and the number of ways the remainder of the pieces

can be ...

An upper bound on the total number of positions which contain

**four**in a row canbe calculated in the same manner .

**Four**of the squares of one player areconstricted to lie on a line , and the number of ways the remainder of the pieces

can be ...

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### Contenido

Chess | 3 |

by ALAN M STANIER | 12 |

by Alan M STANIER | 21 |

Derechos de autor | |

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addition analysis arrangement begin Black block branch called changes chess complete components configuration considered consists corner data structure decision defined described determined developed discs discussed draw edge effect element evaluation example expert fact factor Figure final forcing four function given gives goal Hand heuristic human IAGO important initial interesting knowledge lead learning limited linkage machine means method move node Note object opening opponent pair particular pass pattern pieces planning play player poker position possible present probability problem reason region relations represent routine rules score selection sequence shows side simple situation square stones strategy string structure subgoals success suit tactical territory tournament tree Trick turn weighting White winning