## Computer Games IILong before the advent of the electronic computer, man was fascinated by the idea of automating the thought processes employed in playing games of skill. The very first chess "Automaton" captured the imagination oflate eighteenth century Vienna, and by the early 1900s there was a genuine machine that could play the chess endgame of king and rook against a lone king. Soon after the invention of the computer, scientists began to make a serious study of the problems involved in programming a machine to play chess. Within a decade this interest started to spread, first to draughts (checkers) and later to many other strategy games. By the time the home computer was born, there had already been three decades of research into computer games. Many of the results of this research were published, though usually in publications that are extremely difficult (or even impossible for most people) to find. Hence the present volumes. Interest in computers and programming has now reached into almost every home in the civilized world. Millions of people have regular access to computers, and most of them enjoy playing games. In fact, approximately 80 percent of all software sold for use on personal computers is games software. |

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Until now , rigorous solutions have been attempted only for a few simple games ,

such as

Until now , rigorous solutions have been attempted only for a few simple games ,

such as

**tic**-**tac**-**toe**. Double - dummy bridge is intermediate in complexity . Like**tic**-**tac**-**toe**, all known positions can apparently be analyzed accurately by ...Página 173

In Ko

the first player . By Km

dimensions with K “ squares ” in each “ direction . ” Theorem 6 . In the game of

chess ...

In Ko

**tic**-**tac**-**toe**, with best play the game is always either a draw or a win forthe first player . By Km

**tic**-**tac**-**toe**we mean the obvious generalization to mdimensions with K “ squares ” in each “ direction . ” Theorem 6 . In the game of

chess ...

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To contrast the two methods consider the games of Nim and

, a simple formula exists for counting the number of pieces in each row and then

comparing these sums to determine if the position is “ winning ” or “ losing .

To contrast the two methods consider the games of Nim and

**tic**-**tac**-**toe**. In Nim, a simple formula exists for counting the number of pieces in each row and then

comparing these sums to determine if the position is “ winning ” or “ losing .

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### Contenido

Chess | 3 |

by ALAN M STANIER | 12 |

by ALAN M STANIER | 21 |

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analysis arrangement begin Black block branch called changes chess complete components configuration considered consists contains corner data structure decision defined described determined developed discs discussed draw edge effect element evaluation example expert fact factor Figure final forcing four function given gives goal Hand heuristic human IAGO important initial interesting knowledge lead learning limited linkage machine means method move node Note object opening opponent pair particular pass pattern pieces planning play player poker position possible present probability problem reason region relations represent routine rules score selection sequence shows side simple situation square stones strategy string structure subgoals success suit tactical territory tournament tree Trick turn weighting White winning