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"to be maried to his said sonne1:" and in a subsequent article they allege, that the Duke by falsely coloured suggestions obtained "dyvers grete wardes and mariages "of Heires and their enheritauncez, in speciall of Mar"garete Doughter and Heire of John late Duke of Somer- 5 "set; by which ye have hadde over grete damage, for it "would have suffised to a grete part of the dispense of "youre Houshold"."

In his answer to the articles of the commons the duke does not deny the fact of the marriage having taken 10 place, though he controverts the position, that Margaret Beaufort was heir to the crown in default of the king having issue; "and as for his aquitall, he reporteth hym "to a grete parte of the Lordes that if the Duke of Warrewykes Doughter hadde lyved, he had cast to mary his 15 "sonne to her, and not unto the seid Margarete."

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Her marriage with John de la Pole was apparently regarded as a nullity, and the duke's right to her wardship ceased of course on his attainder, it being then, or soon afterwards, conferred by the king on his uterine bro- 20 thers, Edmund and Jasper ap Meredith ap Tudor', the former of whom subsequently became her husband; a brief account of him therefore seems necessary.

He was the eldest son of Owen ap Meredith ap Tudor, a Welsh gentleman of princely descent, by Catharine of 25 Valois the widow of king Henry the Fifth, and from being born at Hadham in Hertfordshire, he was usually styled Edmund of Hadham. In the 31st Henry VI he was created earl of Richmond, and had a grant of the great honour of Richmond and the lordships of Kendal 30 and Weresdale to him and the heirs male of his body;

1 Rot. Parl. v 177. Reports on the Dignity of a Peer, vol. v p. 284. Hall's Chronicle Hen. VI lxxv a, 2 Ibid. y 181.

3 Ibid. v 182.

4 Ibid. v 330.

5 "LLuelin ap Irrworth Droyndon, Prince of al Wales, had Grifith, Grifith had LLuelin, LLuelin had Catarine his Heire, Catarine had Eleanor, Eleanor had

Helene and Catarine. This Helene
was mother to Owen Glendoure.
Catarine had Meredik. Meredik
had Owen. Owen had Edmunde 35
Earl of Richmond and Gasper
Earl of Pembroke, Edmunde had
Henry the VII. Henry was, as I hard,
posthumus." Leland Itin. v fol. 47.

6 Rot. Parl. v 250--253. Reports 40 on the Dignity of a Peer vol. v 293-300. The value of the honour

he and his brother Jasper, surnamed De Hatfield, who was created earl of Pembroke, having precedence next after dukes. The earls of Richmond and Pembroke in 1454 formed part of the king's household, and were each 5 allowed to keep a chaplain, two esquires, two yeomen, and two chamberlains1.

In 1455 we find the earl of Richmond and his countess joining with Richard duke of York, Richard earl of Salisbury and Alice his countess, Ralph earl of 10 Westmoreland, John earl of Worcester and Richard lord Powys, in an application to the king in parliament on behalf of the abbey of Kirkstall. The countess of Richmond and the other noble persons before mentioned were heirs of Edmund earl of Kent, and as such entitled to a fee farm rent of £90 issuing out of the manor of Colyngham and Berdesay in Yorkshire, the property of Kirkstall abbey; but as the value of that manor was greatly decreased, they agreed to receive in future from the abbot and his successors the sum of £75 only and to grant to the 20 monastery the advowson of the church of Midelton in

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Pykeringlyth in the diocese of York. This agreement they and William the abbot of Kirkstall prayed might receive parliamentary sanction, as it accordingly did.

Soon after her marriage the countess of Richmond became a widow, her husband dying on the morrow of All Souls 35th Henry VI, 14563. After the death of her husband she appears to have resided at Pembroke castle, the property of Jasper earl of Pembroke, her brother-in-law. Here on the feast of St Agnes the second (28th January)

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30 of Richmond in 1309 was £2244.

38. 6d. per annum. MS. Cotton Julius B XII 257 b. In Rymer's Foedera XI 322 is a grant to the earl of Richmond of the castle and 35 manor of Hadley in Essex, dated 5th March 31 Hen. VI.

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1 Nicolas's Acts of the Privy Council VI 222.

2 Rot. Parl. v 343.

3 Inquis. post mort. 35 Hen. VI n. 19. Life of Hen. VII by Bernard

Andreas his poet laureate (in MS.
Cotton Domit. A XVIII 134).

4 "The Castel stondith hard by the Waul on a hard Rokke and is veri larg and strong, being doble wardid. In the utter Ward I saw the Chaumbre wher King Henri the VII was borne, in knowlege wherof a chymmeney is new made with the Armes and Badges of King Henri the VII." Leland Itin. v fo. 74.

1456-71 she gave birth to her only son, on whom was bestowed the baptismal name of Henry and who was destined to become one of the greatest monarchs that ever occupied the throne of England.

Her son Henry duly succeeded to the earldom of 5 Richmond and to the estates of his father, except the portion assigned to the countess for her dower2.

Edmund earl of Richmond was buried in the house of grey friars at Carmarthen, from whence at the dissolution of that monastery his remains were removed to the 10 cathedral church of St David, in the middle of the choir of which is an altar-tomb of dark grey serpentine marble*, whereon was formerly a brass image with escocheons and

1 Collect. Topog. et Geneal. 1278. In an article in the Retrospective Review (N. S. vol. 1 p. 6) credit is taken for a discovery that Hen. VII was born on St Annes day 26 July, "a fact which has been hitherto unknown," but the author of the article referred to was clearly misled by the countess of Richmond's letter, there and hereafter quoted. She states her son to have been born on the day of "Seint Annes," meaning thereby the feast of St Agnes and not of St Anne. The error had not even the claim of novelty, it being at least as old as 1784 (see Masters Memoir of Baker 151 n.). Miss Halsted (Life of Margaret Beaufort 44, 205, 211) has adopted the erroneous date. Leland (Itin. v fo. 47) states that Henry VII was as he had heard posthumous, but this singular circumstance has not been noticed by the historians and biographers of this monarch, although there appears good reason to believe that this report to which Leland alludes was well grounded. In the inquisition taken upon the death of Edmund earl of Richmond at East Retford in Nottinghamshire on the 20th

June 35th Henry VI, it is stated that
that earl died on the morrow of 15
All Souls then last past, and that
Henry earl of Richmond his son
and heir was at the time of the
taking of such inquisition of the
age of fifteen weeks and upwards 20
(Ing. post mort. 35 Hen. VI n. 19).
Hence it appears that he was born
in or about the month of January
after his father's death, as stated
in the text. In the inscription on 25
his tomb in Westminster Abbey he
is stated to have died in the fifty-
third year of his age. Bacon (His-
torie of the Reign of King Henry the
Seventh, edit. 1629 p. 232) states his 30
age to have been fifty-two.

2 Inquis. post mort. 35 Hen. VI n. 19. Rot. Pat. 35 Hen. VI p. 2 m. 1 and 37 Hen. VI p. 2 m. 14.

3 MS. Harl. 1498 fo. 91 b. Fen- 35 ton's Pembrokeshire 78.

4 Fenton's Pembrokeshire 78, 79. In Gough's Camden III 150 it is stated that this monument is said to have prevented Henry VIII from 40 removing the see of St David's to Carmarthen. This could hardly be the case, as the monument was originally at Carmarthen, and was removed thence to St David's.

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the following inscriptions (now torn away, but evidently written after the accession of Henry VII).

"Under this marble stone here inclosed resteth the
"bones of that most noble Lord Edmond Earl
"of Richmond father and brother to Kings, the
"which departed out of the world in the year of our
"Lord God MCCCCLVI the third of the month of
"November: on whose soul Almighty Jesu have
"mercy."

"Heu, Regum Genitor, et Frater, splendidus Heros,
"Omnis quo micuit regia, virtus, obit.
"Herculeus comes ille tuus, Richmondia, duxque
"Conditur Edmundus his quoque marmoribus:
Qui regni clypeus, comitum flos, malleus hostis,
"Vitae dexteritas, pacis amator erat.

"Hic meditare vians te semper vivere posse?
"Non morieris, homo? Nonne, miselle, vides,
"Caesar, quem tremeret armis nec vinceret Hector,
Ipsa devictum morte ruisse virum ?

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"Cede metrum precibus, det regum conditor almus "Ejus spiritui lucida regna poli1.”

The earl of Richmond left off the old arms of Tudor (gules a chevron between three helmets argent), and adopted those of France and England quarterly, within a 25 bordure azure, charged alternately with fleurs de lis and martlets or 2.

In the reign of his son Henry VII an obiit was kept for the earl of Richmond in the abbey of Westminster on the third of November annually, and this monarch granted 30 to the grey friars of Carmarthen a yearly rent of £8 for a daily chantry mass and perpetual anniversary for the soul of his father*.

1 Gough's Sepulchral Monuments II 179. Dugdale's Baronage 111 237. 35 Fenton's Pembrokeshire 78. The english epitaph is here given according to Fenton with the exception of the substitution of the third for the first of Nov. as the day of

the death, which alteration is made on the authority of Dugdale.

2 Sandford's Genealogical Histary, edit. Stebbing 291, 285.

3 Nicolas's Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York 55.

4 MS. Harl. 1498 f. 91 b.

CHAPTER II.

1457-1483.

Marriage with lord Henry Stafford. Pedigree shewing his relationship. Her son attainted and deprived of the honour of Richmond. Acts of resumption. Admitted into fraternity at Croyland abbey. Will of William earl of Pembroke. Henry the Sixth's prophecy respecting the young earl of Richmond, who after the battle of Tewkesbury is taken to Brittany. Grant of manors in Devonshire. Feoffment to Will of the duchess of Buckingham.

the use of her will. Death of Sir Henry Stafford: his will. She marries lord Stanley. Pedigree. Marriage settlement.

NOT long after the death of the earl of Richmond his countess re-married to lord Henry Stafford, a younger son of Humphrey Stafford first duke of Buckingham by Ann daughter of Ralph Neville first earl of Westmoreland. The precise date of this match does not appear, but it 5 took place at least as early as 14591, and the duke of Buckingham, who was slain at the battle of Northampton July 10th, 1460, by his will (which appears to have been made but a short time previously to his death) bequeaths to his son Henry and his daughter Margaret countess of 10 Richmond his wife, the sum of four hundred marks2.

By the following genealogical table it will be seen that her husband was of the royal blood, and was second cousin to the countess by his mother's side, and third cousin by that of his father. They were therefore within the pro- 15 hibited degrees of consanguinity according to the canon

1 Vincent's Corrections of Brooke 87.

2 Nicolas's Testamenta Vetusta 296.

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