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£200 were to be expended in clothes for her executors and servants and other persons attending her funeral and month's day.

distribution of alms after his death: "We wol also that yf we decesse "within this our reame, that then "betwix the houre of our deceasse "and th'ende of the daye of our "sepulture be distributed in ele"mose for the weale of our soule, "two thousand pounds; and yf it "shall fortune us to disceasse in



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any place without this our reame, we wol that then assone as goodly 'may be doon, and at the ferrest "within oon moneth next and "ymmediately after that our said "executours shall have furst notice "of oure decesse, bee distributed "in elemesse for the weale of our "soule the same MM1; whereof we "wol that MD1 bee distributed "among such poore folks as may "travaile to aske elemose, that is "to say to every of theim Iva.; and "to the oder D1, CC1 to be dealte "within oure citie of London, the "suburbes of the same and oure "monastery and towne of West"minster, among lame, blinde, "bedred and moost nedye folks of "the same, which may not travaile "to ask elemesse, and th❜oder "CCC to be dealte among the "miserable prisonners remayning "in any prison within oure said "citie or the suburbes of the same, "or of oure towne of Westminster, "condempned for debt or other 66 cause, where the dutie and "damages excede not IIII1, or such


as remayne in prisonne oonly for "lack of payment of their fees; to "th'entent thei doo praie to al"mighty God for the remission of "our synnes and salvacion of oure "soule. And that the same D1 "bee distributed among the same "lame, blinde, nedy, and the said

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'messe they exhorte and moeve "the poore people that shall re"ceive the said elemose, devoutly 15 "and by name to praie for us and "the weale of our soule, soo that


oure soule may fele that as thei "loved us in oure life, soo thei "may remember us after our de- 20 66 ceasse. And for the true execu"cion herof we charge there con"science as thei will answere "therefor before God." Astle's Will of Henry VII 9.

The funeral dole has only very lately fallen into disuse in the North of England. Raine's Charters, Inventories and Account Rolls of Finchdale Priory 426.

See an amusing account of an annual dole at Titchborne in Hampshire, in Duthy's Sketches of Hampshire 73.



These doles frequently however 35 led to great disorder, and we are told that at the burial of lady Ramsey in 1601, "a charitable doale or "almes was given for her on the "same day in the afternoone at 40 "the Leadenhall, where 17 poore "and weake people were among "the sturdie beggars crushed and "troden to death" (Stow's Annales, ed. 1605, p. 1411). At the funeral 45 of Sir John Spencer alderman of London in 1609-10 there were 320 poor men who had every one a basket given him, containing a

Three hearses were to be provided, one for her chapel, one for the church of the parish where she should die, and the third for the abbey of Westminster.

Directions are given for providing torches at the fune5 ral, and the rewards to be given the persons employed on the occasion are specified.

She directs her debts to be paid, and that her household be kept together for a quarter of a year after her death, and that her domestic servants be paid half a year's IO wages.

She bequeaths certain legacies, specified in a schedule1, and appoints as her executors Richard Fox bishop of Winchester, John Fisher bishop of Rochester, Lord Herbert the king's chamberlain, Sir Thomes Lovell treasurer of 15 the king's household, Sir Henry Marney chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, Sir John Saint John her chamberlain, Henry Horneby her chancellor and Sir Hugh Ashton comptroller of her household3; and she beseeches the king to be supervisor and to shew his special help, favour 20 and assistance to her executors. She also desires the archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Warham) to see her will performed.


The countess details her foundation of the cantarists at Westminster; of the divinity readers at Oxford and 25 Cambridge; the preacher at the latter place; and of Christ's college there. She confirms the grant by her feoffees of a close of land in Maxey to trustees for the

black gown, 4lbs. of beef, two loaves of bread, a little bottle of 30 wine, a candlestick, a pound of

candles, two saucers, two spoons, a black pudding, a pair of gloves, a dozen of points, two red herrings, six sprats and two eggs (Winwood's 35 Memorials III 136).


1 This schedule is not annexed to the copy of the countess's will in Nichols's Royal Wills, and is probably not now extant. [See Append.] 2 Henry Horneby was afterwards D.D. and master of Peterhouse in Cambridge. He wrote a History of

the name of Jesus, which he dedicated to the countess of Richmond. Tanner's Biblioth. Brit. Hib. 413. Other particulars respecting Dr Horneby may be found in Churton's Lives of Smyth and Sutton 120, 121, and in Cole's Collections (MS. Addit. in Mus. Brit. 5871).

3 Hugh Ashton archdeacon of York was a considerable benefactor to St John's college, Cambridge. He died 1522, and is buried in the ante-chapel of that college. Blomefield's Collectanea Cantabrigiensia 121.

exhibition and finding of Margaret White anchoress in the house of nuns beside Stamford, and of an honest woman to attend upon her during her life'; and various grants made by the feoffees of her Northamptonshire estates to her servants and others.

Her executors are directed to make a tomb and one or two altars for the purpose of her masses in the chapel of Henry the seventh at Westminster, and to establish and found the chantry and school at Winborn, unless she should establish it in her life.

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She wills that lands called Fosters in Curry Revel in Somersetshire be sold, and that the produce be applied in payment of her debts and the satisfaction of her will and in works of piety and mercy for the weal of her soul; and she charges her debts and legacies on her lands in 15 Somersetshire and Devonshire; and directs that the unbequeathed residue of her goods be applied for the wealth of her soul in such manner as her executors should think most meritorious and convenient.

By a codicil without date and written in the third 20 person it is stated to be the countess's intention to dissolve the hospital of St. John in Cambridge, and to change the same into a college of secular persons, viz. a master and 50 scholars with divers servants, and to build anew the said college, and sufficiently to endow the same with lands 25 and tenements after the manner and form of other colleges in Cambridge, and to furnish the same in the library, pantry and kitchen, with books and all other things necessary. And she willed her executors to take the profits

1 This Margaret White, although an anchoress, was a member of St Katharine's gild at Stamford (MS. in Biblioth Coll. Gon. et Caii Cantab. no 266 f. 53). See a note respecting anchorites in Nicolas's Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York 174. Various particulars respecting anchorites and anchoresses may be found in Blomefield's Norfolk, 8vo edit. 11 430, 505. 111 177, 212 [these two pp. relate to the right of sanctuary]. Iv 70, 75, 81, 82, 83,

111, 128, 140, 176, 245, 263, 421,
423, 430. v 305. Rot. Parl. 1 419.
v 546. Newcome's St Albans 391.
Ames's Typographical Antiquities,
edit. Herbert 1 185, 389. Fos-
brooke's British Monachism, 8vo 35
edit. 1 55 to 61. Trokelowe An-
nales Edvardi 11, edit. Hearne 265.
Rymer's Foedera 1x 275, 276. Wee-
ver's Funeral Monuments 150.
Peshall's City of Oxford 318. Vic- 40
tor Hugo's Notre Dame.

2 "By the way be it observed




of her enfeoffed lands in Devonshire, Somersetshire and Northamptonshire, for the performance of such intention and payment of the old debts and repair of the lands and tenements of the hospital.

The countess further willed that her old and serviceable household servants and her executors should be rewarded at the discretion of bishop Fox, and that the twelve poor men and women whom she had kept at Hatfield should be maintained at her costs during their lives. To the free school and chantry at Winborn she gave £6 a year in lands, besides the £10 a year mentioned in the king's licence.

To Christ's college she gave lands of £16 per annum in addition to those then in possession of the college, and she directed that the college should at her charge be perfectly finished "in all reparacions, bielding and gar"nyshing of the same." She willed that the manor of Malton should be built and repaired at her costs, so that the society might resort thither for study during the time 20 of any contagious sickness at Cambridge, and that a coffer with £100 in it should be provided for the college, to be spent as they should need.

All her plate, jewels, vestments, altarcloths, books, hangings and other necessaries belonging to her chapel, 25 and not otherwise bequeathed, she gave to her colleges of Christ and St John, to be divided between them at the discretion of her executors.

The fourth day before her death she willed that bishop Fox and Henry Horneby her chancellor should have the

30 "that Cambridge hath been much

"beholden to the strength of bounty "in the weaker sex. Of the four "halls therein two, viz. Clare and "Pembroke, were (as I may say) 35 "feminine foundations; and of the "twelve colledges one third, Queens', "Christ's, Saint John's and Sid"ney, owe their original to worthy 66 women; whereas no female ever 40 "founded colledge in Oxford (though "bountifull benefactors to many), "seeing Queen's colledge therein,

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oversight of her will, with power to alter, add to or diminish the same1.

The schedule to her will does not appear to be preserved, but amongst the bequests which it contained was probably one to the church of Winborn minster of a cope 5 of blue cloth of gold, another of crimson cloth of gold, and a suit of vestments2.

The plate bequeathed to Christ's college was delivered to the master on the 14th of August succeeding the countess's death, and of the inventory then made the 10 following fragment has been preserved:

“First a gret crucifix gilt and inamyld with Mary and "John, pondering cxvj unc. price the unce iiij.

...xxiijli iiij3. "Item one crucifix, with Mary and John gilt and 15 "inamyld, pondering 47 unc. di. price the unce iiij.

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...ixli xs.

"Item a hole harnish for a crosstaf to be borne in procession, that is to understond, iij long holow pipes and “4 gret knoppis, part of them inamyled and one of them 20 "having a gret crest with pynacles, all pondering exviij "unc. price the unce iiij3.. xxiijli xij3. “Item one gilt foot for a crosse to rest in upon the auter, "pondering xxiij unc. price the unce iiij3..................................iiij xij3. “Item a great chales with the patent gilt, ponsid with 25 "portculious, rosis, margarettes3, the ymage of the Trinite inamyld, and ymage of the crucifix inamyld, with the 'patent in the foot, pond. xxiiij unc. quart. price the "unce iijs viija iiijli viijs xjų. Item a chales with the patent gilt, with this scripture 30 "Calicem Salutar. accipiam et nomen Dni invocabo "abowte the cup, of 4..

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1 Nichols's Royal Wills 356388. Nicolas's Testamenta Vetusta 516-524.

2 Hutchins's Dorset 11 552.

The margarite or daisy was used as a device both by the countess and her granddaughter the princess Margaret, as it had previously been by their namesake Margaret of Anjou queen of



Hen. VI (see Sir Henry Ellis's
Letters, second series 1 94). Cam-
den (Remains, edit. 1674 p. 455) 35
states the device of Margaret
countess of Richmond to have been
three white daisies growing on a turf.
4 Wright's Memorials of Cam-
bridge (Christ's College 4). Cam- 40
bridge Portfolio 299.

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