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law; in all probability therefore a papal dispensation was obtained for sanctioning this marriage'.

On her marriage with lord Henry Stafford his father the duke of Buckingham settled upon the newly married couple (amongst other lands) the manors of Hengrave 5 and Leo's hall in Westley in the county of Suffolk, which the countess as the survivor held during her life".

On the accession of Edward IV the young earl of Richmond (whose grandfather Owen Tudor was beheaded at Hereford after the battle of Mortimer's Cross) was IO attainted; and the honour of Richmond (but not the earldom) was granted to the king's brother George duke of Clarence. In an act of resumption passed in the first of Edward IV there is however a clause, that that act should not be prejudicial to the countess of Richmond 15 in respect of any lands, tenements or possessions, held by her in dower of the endowment of Edmund earl of Richmond her late husband, or by the assignation of

1 The consanguinity between the parties hardly justifies the statement that lord Henry Stafford was a near relative of the countess of Richmond (see Miss Halsted's Life of Margaret Beaufort 65, where he is styled Sir Humphrey Stafford), but it should be remarked that his elder brother Humphrey (slain at the battle of St Alban's 1455) had married the countess of Richmond's aunt Margaret Beaufort, daughter of John earl of Somerset and marquis of Dorset. In some prefatory observations to the household book of Edward Stafford duke of Buckingham (contained in the Archaeologia xxv 314) it is stated that "the mother of king Henry VII, Margaret of Richmond, was matched with lord Henry Stafford the duke's brother." A strange mistake, as the countess's husband was great uncle to Edward Stafford duke of Buckingham. See the preceding edigree, and Nicolas's Synopsis of

the Peerage I 92. Leland (Itin. 1 p.
79) speaking of the countess of 20
Richmond observes, "Syr William
Parre told me that this Margaret
had to her first husband Staford
erle of Wileshire, uncle to the last
duke of Buckingham." The only 25

Stafford earl of Wiltshire was the
brother of the last duke of Buck-
ingham. He was created earl of
Wiltshire in 1509 and died in 1523
(see Nicolas's Synopsis of the Peer- 30
age 11 695).

2 Gage's History of Suffolk,
Thingoe Hundred 92, 180, 286.
Gage's History of Hengrave 99,
100, 101.
35

3

Reports on the dignity of a Peer II 112 and v 359. In Sir Henry Ellis's Letters (second series) 1 135, 139, are letters of "George duke of Clarence and lord of Richemond." 40 This duke had also a herald by the title of Richemond (Hearne's Curious Discourses, ed. 1771 vol. 1 .160).

king Henry the Sixth, or of any lands, etc. which descended to her from John duke of Somerset her father1.

In 1464 the countess and her mother the duchess of Somerset were admitted into fraternity at the abbey of 5 Croyland, near which monastery was the manor of Deeping, then held by the duchess in dower; which at her death descended to the countess, as heiress to her father". Another act of resumption was passed at this period, but it contained clauses exempting from its operation the 10 property of the countess3.

It is probable that the wardship of her son Henry had been granted to William lord Herbert, on whom Edward the Fourth had conferred the dignity of earl of Pembroke on the attainder of Jasper de Hatfield the countess of 15 Richmond's brother-in-law; and it appears the earl had contemplated marrying the young earl of Richmond to his daughter Maud, for in his will, dated July 16th, 1468, he says: "I will that Maud my daughter be wedded to the lord Henry of Richmond." But although this match 20 did not take effect (the lady being married to Henry earl of Northumberland), the young earl of Richmond continued for some time afterwards to reside with Maud the countess dowager of Pembroke, by whom he was educated R.

25

On the restoration, for a brief period, of Henry VI, the earl of Richmond was taken from the care of the countess Maud by his paternal uncle Jasper earl of Pembroke, and presented to the king, who is said to have foretold his future greatness by an observation, which is 30 thus rendered by our great dramatist :

"Come hither, England's hope: if secret powers
Suggest but truth to my divining thoughts,
This pretty lad will prove our country's bliss.
His looks are full of peaceful majesty,

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His head by nature framed to wear a crown,
His hand to wield a sceptre, and himself
Likely in time to bless a regal throne.
Make much of him, my lords; for this is he
Must help you more than you are hurt by me1."

5

The young earl was not however restored to his estates, as Henry VI confirmed the grant of the honour of Richmond to "false fleeting perjured Clarence," and after the fatal battle of Tewkesbury, his uncle, acting under the advice of the countess of Richmond, fled with him to 10 France, but was driven by stress of weather upon the coast of Brittany, where he found a safe asylum during the whole reign of Edward IV, notwithstanding the most extraordinary and unintermitted efforts of that monarch to get him into his power3.

In 1472 the countess of Richmond had a grant from the king in fee of the manors of Sampford Peverell and Aller Peverell in the county of Devon, theretofore the estate of Sir William Ashthorpe knt.* The countess is said to have lived for some time at Sampford Peverell".

The countess had a licence from Edward IV to convey to trustees for the use of her will her manors of Martok, Currey Ryvell, Kyngesbury and Queen Camel with the hundreds of Bulston, Abdike and Horethorn in the county

1 Shakspeare Third part of Henry VI act IV sc. 6. Hall's Chronicle Edw. IV xxii b. "Henry the VI

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66

sayde that Henry the VII then

beyng yn childehod should obteine "the corone of England as his "right." Leland Itin. 1 f. 85.

Sandford says that the young earl of Richmond was at this time a scholar in Eton college, but his statement seems doubtful. Sandford's Genealogical History, edit. Stebbing 463.

2 Reports on the dignity of a Peer vol. II p. 112.

3 Dugdale's Baronage 11 238242. Bern. Andreas Cotton MSS. Domit. XVIII c. 9.

Miss Halsted (p. 87) is in doubt

15

20

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of Somerset, and the borough of Sampford Peverell with the hundred of Allerton in the county of Devon. She accordingly made a feoffment in trust of these estates to Robert Stillington bishop of Bath and Wells, Reginald 5 Bray and others1.

On the 20th September 1480, died Ann duchess of Buckingham, mother of lord Henry Stafford, who after the duke of Buckingham's death had intermarried with Walter Blount lord Mountjoy, whom she survived. By IO her will she makes the following bequest to the countess : "To my daughter of Richmond a book of English called Legenda Sanctorum, a book of French called Lucun, another book of French of the epistles and gospels, and a primer with clasps of silver gilt covered with purple velvet "."

15

2

Lord Henry (or, as he was usually styled, Sir Henry) Stafford appears to have died in 1482, as his will was proved on the 4th May in that year. By this will, which is dated the 2nd October 1481, he bequeaths a trappur of four new horse harness of velvet to his son-in-law the 20 earl of Richmond, and after giving £160 for the perpetual endowment of a priest to sing for his soul in the college of Plessy in Essex, his bay courser to his brother John earl of Wiltshire, and his grizzled horse to Reginald Bray his receiver-general, he constitutes his beloved wife 25 Margaret countess of Richmond his residuary legatee and executrix 3.

30

In or about the same year died the countess's mother

1 Nichols's Royal Wills 383.
2 Dugdale's Baronage i 167.
3 Ibid. Nicolas's Testamenta Ve-
tusta 324.

"It would seem that at the time "of his death Sir Henry Stafford "and the lady Margaret must 35 "have been dwelling at Woking in

Surrey, as his will is witnessed "by Walter Baker vicar of that "parish; and it would also appear 3 'as if they had long sojourned 40 "there, for he bequeaths to the

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