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mill in Wakis Colne Essex, lately in tenure of Ric. Boner, parcel of the lands of the countess of Richmond, for 21 years, at the annual rent of 60s., and 13s. 4d. of increase. Delivered Westminster 26 May 11 Hen. VIII (ibid. 95 n. 278).

1519 30 May S. B. Pat. p. 1 m. 15. John Nauseglos. Lease of 5 pastures called Litelholme (John Gibbes late tenant), in the lordship of Westedepyng and le Holbett (Ric. Rawlins late tenant), and of a culture called Langelandis in Westeparke (Wm. Olyver and Wm. Derbey late tenants), parcel of the lands of the late countess of Richmond in Linc., for 21 years, at various annual rents amounting to IO £3. 138. 4d. Delivered Westminster 30 May 11 Hen. VIII (ibid).

1520 4 May S. B. Pat. p. 1 m. 7. John Hale. Lease of the Sharneford mills and a moor in the lordship of Lammersshe Essex, late of the countess of Richmond, for 21 years, at the annual rent of £4. Delivered Westminster 4 May 12 Hen. VIII (ibid. 297 n. 854). 15

1521 17 May S. B. Pat. p. 2 m. 18. Sir Ric. Weston knight of the body, the king's councillor. Grant, in fee, of the manor of Sutton Surrey, found by inquisition p. m. at Suthewark 4 Feb. 12 Hen. VIII, before John Lovette escheator, to have been held by Margaret countess of Richmond, on whose death it descended to the king. De- 20 livered Westminster 17 May 13 Hen. VIII (ibid. 529 n. 1324).

1522 5 Feb. S. B. Pat. p. 3 m. 15. Ric. Cecile. Reversion of the offices of constable of Maxey castle Northt., with 3d. a day; bailiff of the lordship of Maxey and keeper of Bourne park Linc., in the king's hands by death of Margaret countess of Richmond; and keeper 25 of the swans in cos. Northt. and Linc.; on vacation by John Sharp page, and Hugh Edwards sewer, of the chamber, who hold the same by patent 11 June 5 Hen. VIII. Delivered Westminster 5 Feb. 13 Hen. VIII (ibid. 889 n. 2074).

Same day S. B. Pat. p. 3 m. 1. John Russell. Reversion of the 30 petty custom of the town and port of Pole, the toll of the said town "and le Wolhouse" there, and all lands etc. in Upton Dorset in the king's hands by death of Margaret countess of Richmond; on vacation by John Hunte chief cook of the king's kitchen, who holds the same by patent 23 Sept. 4 Hen. VIII. Delivered Westminster 35 5 Feb. 13 Hen. VIII (ibid. 890 n. 2074).

1522 28 Mar. S. B. Pat. p. 3 m. 15. Wm. Lancaster. Lease of the manor of Marton Westmorl., late of the countess of Richmond, for 21 years; rent £15. 15s. 2d. and 8s. 4d. of increase. Delivered Westminster 28 Mar. 13 Hen. VIII (ibid. 917 n. 2145).

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1523 6 Feb. S. B. Pat. p. 2 m. 20. Miles Brykehed and Joan his wife. Lease of a water mill in the lordship of Thorp and Achwich Northt., now in tenure of the said Miles, of pastures in the great close called Conygarth there, and of closes called Lytell Conygerth and Lyttylholme, "le Parke" in the castle there, Willougholte and 45 Cheker garden, parcel of the countess of Richmond's lands; for 21

years; rent £7., and 4d. of increase. Delivered Westminster 6 Feb, 14 Hen VIII (ibid. 1204 n. 2862).

1523 18 Feb. S. B. Pat. p. 1 m. 18. Philip Fulford and John Byrte. Lease of the fishery of the weirs of Poundewere, Lawndewere 5 and Newmyll in the lordship of Coryryvell1, parcel of the countess of Richmond's lands; for 21 years; rent 20s., and 26s. 8d. of newly approved rent. Delivered Westminster 18 Feb. 14 Hen. VIII (ibid. 1205 n. 2862).

1523 3 Apr. S. B. Pat. p. 2 m. 24. Henry Courtney earl of Devon. 10 To be steward of the honor of Wynkelegh, called Gloucester Fee or Wynkeley Fee, and of the lordships of Southtawton and Seele Devon; also chief steward and surveyor of the lands belonging to the duchies of Exeter and Somerset, and master of the hunts in the same, which descended to the king on the death of Margaret countess of 15 Richmond; as held by Henry earl of Wiltshire, deceased. Delivered Hampton Court 3 April 14 Hen. VIII (ibid. 1262 n. 2992).

1523 7 May S. B. Pat. p. 1 m. 7. John Lynde yeoman of the guard. Lease of the herbage of the wood called "Westewode," in the lordship of Lammersshe Essex, late of the countess of Richmond; 20 for 21 years; rent 5s., and 15s. of increase. Delivered Westminster 7 May 15 Hen. vII (ibid. 1285 n. 3062).

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1523 16 May S. B. Pat. p. 1 m. 3. Athelard Hubbard. Lease of four tenements and a lane in Boston Linc., on the east side of the river of that town, late of the countess of Richmond; for 21 years; rent £4. 3s. 4d, and 20d. of increase; on surrender of patent 26 May 11 Hen. VIII. Delivered Westminster 16 May 15 Hen. VIII

(ibid. 1286 n. 3062).

1 Corywell on Pat. Roll.

IV. The following, without date, is printed in Hymers' 30 ed. of bp. Fisher's Fun. sermon 167-8.

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A letter from Lady Margaret to the Mayor of Coventry.

[Ex Archivis Civ. Coventr.]

'By the Kinges moder

'Trusty and welbeloved, we grete you well. And wher we of late, upon the compleint of oon Owen, burchis of the Citie ther, addressed or other tres unto you, and willed you by the same and in or name, to call afor you the parties comprised in the same compleint and therupon to 40 order the variaunce depending betwixt them according to good conscience; albeit as it is said, the said Owen can or

may have no reasonable aunswer of you in that behalve to or mervall: Wherfor we wol and in the kinges name commaunde you eftsones to call befor you the said parties, and roundely texamyn them, and therupon to order and determine the premisses, as may stande wt good 5 reson and thequytie of the kings lawes; so as no complaint be made unto us hereafter in that behalve; endevoyring you thus to do, as ye tendre the kings pleas and o's, and the due ministracon of justice. Given under or signet at our manoir of Colyweston, the last day of Sep- 10 tember.

'To oure trusty and welbeloued the maior of the citie of Coventre and his brethern of the same, and to eny of theim.'

NOTES.

P. 2 1. 13 the reference is to n. 3.

1. 20 Catherine Swinford. cf. Pauli Geschichte von England IV 602.

P. 41. 1 the custody of the lands of minors was an important 5 part of the king's prerogative. See p. 15 1. 11. Sir H. Ellis Orig. Letters ser. 3 1 106-9. The earl of Arundel had promised H. IV a large sum of money for leave to marry after his own choice. A Portuguese lady was proposed to him, with the prospect of escaping the promised payment, as the match was none of his seeking. He IO was married 26 Nov. 1404; but H. IV still demanded the payment of the bribe. Philippa queen of Portugal wrote to her brother Henry 'that it will please you to quit claim to the said sum' (M. A. E. Wood Letters of royal......ladies 1 78-81).

P. 5 1. 10 an age in which writing was deemed an extraordi15 nary acquirement for a female. M. A. E. Wood Letters of royal ......ladies I 90 says that John of Gaunt's daughters seem to have been the first English ladies who knew how to write. cf. ibid. 94, Green's Princesses III 423-4.

1. 11 she understood French. Bergenroth's Calendar of state 20 papers I 156 De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella 17 July 1498 'The queen and the mother of the king wish that the princess of Wales should always speak French with the princess Margaret, who is now in Spain, in order to learn the language, and to be able to converse in it when she comes to England. This is necessary, 25 because these ladies do not understand Latin and much less Spanish. They also wish that the princess of Wales should accustom herself to drink wine. The water of England is not drinkable, and even if it were, the climate would not allow the drinking of it.'

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1. 13 hereafter. pp. 95, 108. cf. p. 45.

P. 6 1. 12 John, afterwards the first viscount Welles. See Green's Princesses III 420 seq.

1. 15 married at an extremely early age. Lingard Iv5 170 Edw. IV. in November 1469 asked the advice of his lords how to dispose of his eldest daughter, who was only four years of age. 35 Ibid. 211 A.D. 1478 'it was a singular but leading feature in the policy of this king, that he negotiated marriages for his children almost the very moment they were born. Elizabeth had long been contracted to the dauphin of France, Cecily to the son and heir of

the king of Scotland, Anne to the infant son of Maximilian archduke of Austria, and his eldest son to the eldest daughter of the duke of Bretagne.' Arthur prince of Wales was an infant, when his marriage with Katharine was discussed in 1488 Bergenroth Calendar of State Papers 1 5, 11 etc. The English princess Mar- 5 garet was nine years of age when her hand was sought ibid. 176. cf. the contract between the princess Mary and the archduke Charles ibid. 444.

P. 9 n. 3. Life of Hen. VII by Bernard Andreas. Printed in the Rolls series of chronicles and memorials by James Gairdner Lond. 10 1858. Historia regis Henrici septimi a Bernardo Andrea Tholosate conscripta. The death of earl Edmund is mentioned p. 14, but without date.

1. 29 on the feast of St Agnes the second. The date given by Bernard Andreas p. 12, but he erroneously adds 'Februarii kalend. 15 decimo septimo,' i. e. 16 Jan. See below p. 67 l. 30.

P. 10 n. 1 Henry VII posthumous. Gairdner Memorials of Henry VII xxiv n. 1. In Gairdner's Letters and papers of the reigns of Richard III and Henry VII 1 422 is printed part of a speech of John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, chancellor of the univer- 20 sity, delivered at Cambridge [in 1506?] before Henry VII, his mother and prince Arthur: 'mater deinde viro orbata te peperit orphanum, a cuius uberibus mox abstractus illorum custodiae traditus fueras qui bellis assiduis implicabantur.'

P. 11 1. 11 dele, after regia; 1. 18 read Caesar quem traheret, 25 armis etc.

P. 14 1. 25 b read the only Henry.

P. 15 1.4 admitted into fraternity. See below 84—5.

1. 23 the countess dowager of Pembroke by whom he was educated. See respecting Pembroke Bernard Andreas p. 12; Andreas 30 Scotus, then a professor of theology of Oxford, often told Bernard (p. 13) 'nunquam tantae celeritatis illa aetate capacem doctrinae puerum se audivisse.'

121.

1. 27 Jasper earl of Pembroke. Campbell Materials 1 102, 116—7,

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1. 28 the king, who is said to have foretold his future greatness. Bernard Andreas p. 14 'sed quia, Henrico sexto quadam die cum proceribus et optimatibus regni convivium amplissimum agente, idem rex inter lavandum manus comite Richemundiae accito praedixerat illum aliquando regni gubernacula suscepturum omniaque 40 manu sua (ut nunc videmus feliciter possidet) habiturum, praefati boni regis consilio comes Richemundiae, ut hostium truculentas manus evaderet, trans mare secreto mittitur.'

P. 16 1. 9 his uncle, acting under the advice of the countess of Richmond, fled with him to France. Bernard Andreas pp. 14—18 45 gives a speech of the countess to the earl of Pembroke, the earl's reply, and the speech of Francis duke of Brittany to Henry and his party.

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