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berlain, apprising him that the earl of Lincoln and other adherents of the impostor Lambert Simnel had landed in Ireland, and requesting the earl to accompany the queen and his mother for whom he had previously sent :

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Right trusty and right welbeloved cousin, we greete "you wele, and have tidings that our rebelles landed "the vth daye of this moneth in our land of Irland. Wherfore, and forasmoche as we have sent for our "derrest wif and for our derrest moder to come unto us, 10 "and that we wold have your advis and counsail also in "soche matiers as we have to doo for the subduyng of "our said rebelles, we praie you that, yeving your due 'attendaunce uppon our said derrest wif and lady moder, "ye come with thaym unto us; not failing herof as ye 15 purpose to doo us plaisir. Yeven undre our signett at our castle of Kenelworth the xiij daye of Maye.


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"To our right trustie and right welbeloved
"cousin th'erl of Ormond chamberlan to our
"derrest wif the queene'."


After the battle of Stoke in 1487 the estates of John de la Pole earl of Lincoln, who was slain in that engagement, became vested in the crown. Amongst them were the manors of Colne Wake and Lammarsh in Essex, which were the inheritance of Margaret Holland (the 25 grandmother of the countess of Richmond) and had been entailed on her male descendants. These manors were granted by the king to his mother, who continued to hold them till her death, and who presented to the rectory of Colne Wake in 1503 and 15042.


The coronation of the queen, which had been most unaccountably delayed for an unusually long period, was at length appointed to take place at Westminster on the feast of St. Catharine 1487; and we find the name of the earl of Derby amongst the commissioners previously 35 nominated for executing the office of high steward on the occasion3.

1 Sir Henry Ellis's Letters, first series 1 18.

2 Morant's Essex 11 222, 269.

Newcourt's Repertorium 11 190.

3 Rymer's Foedera x11 328.


On the Friday preceding the ceremony the countess accompanied the queen in her triumphant procession by water from Greenwich to the Tower of London, and on the day of the coronation the countess was, with the king 5" and a goodly sight of ladies and gentlewomen attending upon her," a spectator of the ceremonial from a temporary stage covered with arras and latticed between the pulpit and the high altar of the abbey church. She was also from a similar stage a spectator of the coronation 10 banquet in Westminster Hall.


On the day succeeding the coronation. the countess of Richmond accompanied the king to mass in St Stephen's chapel, and when, on the same day, the queen kept her estate in the parliament chamber, we are told that “my 15“ladie the king's mother sat on her right hande;" perhaps however there are but few who in the present day precisely comprehend the statement of the contemporary herald, that when after dinner Nicholas Gaynesford one of the esquires of honour drew the surnape and 20 made the queen whole estate, "“my ladie the king's mother "had half estate and the terse also1."

An act of parliament was passed in the third of Henry VII, confirming the king's grant of castles, honours etc. to the countess, dated the 22nd March in the second 25 year of his reign, notwithstanding any grants by Edward IV or Richard III, and annulling certain grants of offices made by the king and his predecessors: and in an act of resumption passed in the same parliament a clause was introduced, saving all grants, leases and letters patent made to the countess3.


The Christmas of 1487 was observed by the court with great state at the palace of Greenwich; the countess was present, and was thrice cried largesse by the heralds in these terms: "De hault puissant et excellent princesse 35 " la mer du roy notre soveraigne countesse de Richemonde et de Derbye, largesse." Her gift to the heralds was according to one account twenty shillings, but another

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1 Ives's Select Papers 127-145. Leland's Collectanea, edit. 1770 40 Iv 216-233.

2 Rot. Parl. vi 387.

3 Ibid. vI 404.

makes it 26s. 8d. The earl of Derby, who was also present, was cried largesse, as "Beauper de roy notre souveraigne." On twelfth day the countess wore "like mantell and "surcott as the quene, with a rich corrownall on her hede1,"

1 Leland's Collectanea, ed. 1770 iv 234, 235. Ives's Select Papers 156-158.





Countess of Richmond at Windsor at the feasts of Easter and St George 1488. Gives manor house to clergyman of Torrington; benefactor to the churches of Sampford Peverell and Dedham. Presentation of sword and cap to Henry VII. Keeps her Christmas at Sheen. Completes a mansion at Colyweston. Keeps feast of Easter 1489 at Hertford. Caxton dedicates to her The Hystorye of Kynge Blanchardyne and Queen Eglantyne his Wyfe.' Presents to and from the corporation of Cambridge. Baptism of the princess Margaret. Feasts of Christmas and Candlemas 1489-90. Manor of Ewelme. Familiar letter to the earl of Ormond. Minstrels. Cressy Hall. Swineshead. New feoffment to the use of her will. Cheshunt. John Hayes. Cardinal Beaufort's estates.

DURING the year 1488 it would appear that the countess of Richmond resided very much at court, as she was present with the king and queen at the celebration of most of the principal festivals. She was at Windsor during Easter, and on the feast of St George she and the queen were clothed in gowns of the garter similar to those worn by the sovereign and knights of that order, and at Te Deum the countess was censed next after the king and queen and before the knights comIo panions. On the Sunday following she and the queen, being arrayed in gowns of the livery of the order, rode to evensong in a splendid chair1 covered with rich cloth of gold and drawn by six coursers trapped in the same manner, and followed by a suite of 21 ladies clad in


1 See an essay on the early use of carriages and chairs in England by T. H. Markland esq. Archaeologia xx 443; a note on cars, chairs, litters, chariots and wains in

Nicolas's Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York 262; Sir Henry Ellis's Letters, second series II 253, and Nicolas's Privy Purse Expenses of Hen. VIII 309.

crimson velvet and riding upon white palfreys sumptuously ornamented'. At Whitsuntide the countess was also at Windsor, as were her husband the earl of Derby and Sir Reginald Bray".

The countess lived for some time at Torrington in 5 Devonshire, and pitying the long path the clergyman had from his house to the church, she gave to him and his successors the manor house there with the lands thereto belonging; and at Sampford Peverell in the same county she is said to have built an aisle in the church, in a IO window of which are, or were, her arms and those of the earl of Derby with this inscription "Mater Regis et Thome "comitis Derbie mariti ejusdem Margaret." It is probable that she was a benefactor to the church of Dedham in Essex, as her statue was placed at the east side of the 15 battlements and her coronets all round".

The countess kept the feast of Allhallows at Windsor, and on the removal to Westminster of the king and queen she seems to have accompanied them. At any rate she was present shortly afterwards at St. Paul's 20 cathedral on occasion of the solemn presentation to the king of a hallowed sword and cap of maintenance, which had been sent him by the pope (Innocent VIII) and were received with great state, being brought in procession from Canterbury to London; where they were welcomed 25 by the mayor and aldermen in their formalities and "all the craftes in ther clothings." With the countess's extreme reverence for the church there can be no doubt she was highly gratified, when she observed her only son girt with the sword and covered with the cap, which 30 denoted the pre-eminent rank, which in the pope's estimation he held amongst the princes of Christendom®.

1 Leland Collect. edit. 1770 IV 238 etc. Ives's Select Papers 162 etc. Ashmole's Order of the Garter 549. Anstis's Register of the Garter 11 226 n. 227. Ashmole (p. 218) states inaccurately that he found no mention of liveries of the order of the garter for ladies after 16th Edw. IV.

2 Leland Collect. edit. 1770 IV


3 Risdon's Chorographical De- 35 scription of Devon, edit. 1811 272. 4 Ibid. 70.

5 Morant's Essex II 248.

6 Leland Collect. edit. 1770 IV 243, 244. Similar presents were 40 sent by pope Alexander VI in the

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