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The court kept the Christmas of the same year at Sheen in Surrey (now known by the title of Richmond, subsequently given to it by Henry VII), where, amongst a numerous assemblage of nobles and gentry, were the countess of Richmond, her husband the earl of Derby, his son Sir Edward Stanley (afterwards for his eminent services at Flodden field created lord Monteagle) and Sir Reginald Bray1.

The countess of Richmond resided very frequently at 10 Colyweston in Northamptonshire and completed a mansion there, which had been commenced by Ralph lord Cromwell. This mansion, which has been described as "a goodly faire and stately house," has been superseded by a comparatively modern structure2.

15 12th Hen. VII. Bacon's Historie

of Henry VII 178. It may be observed that Bacon seems to be in error in stating that pope Innocent's presents were received with 20 less glory than those of his successor. In 1505 a sword and cap of maintenance were sent to the king by pope Julius II; these were also received "with many and great 25 ceremonies." Stow's Annales, edit. 1605 p. 811.

Leo X in 1514 sent the like presents to Hen. VIII, to whom they were presented at St Paul's Ibid. 30 831.

Clement VII's present to the latter monarch in 1524 was of a different kind. We are told "the "first of September, doctor Thomas 35 "Hanniball master of the rols was

"received into London as ambas"sador from Clement the 7 pope, "which brought with him a rose "of gold for a token to the king, 40" which was presented to him at

"Windsore. This tree was forged "of fyne gold and wrought with "branches, leaues and flowers, re"sembling roses, set in a pot of 45 "golde, which potte had three "feet of antike fashion, of measure

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The pope was accustomed to bestow a golden rose on the Sunday in Lent called Laetare Jerusalem [or Palm Sunday] as early as the thirteenth century, when it was given to Sir Reginald Mohun (Fuller's Church History lib. 111 64). In 1446 it was given to king Henry the Sixth (Wilkins's Concilia III 551), and in 1510 to Henry VIII (Johnson's Canons vol. II sig. Ll. Wilkins's Concilia III 652). 1205 pope Innocent III sent to king John 4 rings of gold adorned with precious stones accompanied with a highly complimentary bull, in which he descanted upon the emblematical qualities of the circular form, the quaternion number, the gold of which they were composed, and the various jewels which enriched them. Foedera,edit. Clarke etc. 1 93. 1 Leland Collect. edit. 17701V 245. 2 Bridges's Northamptonshire II 433. Camden's Britannia, edit. Holland 1637 p. 514.

She had an establishment suitable to her exalted rank as the king's mother; for mention is made of her chancellor, her chamberlain and the comptroller of her household'. Of her hospitality and the regulation of her household we have the following account:


"Her owne housholde with mervaylous dylygence and "wysedome this noble prynces ordered, provydyng rea"sonable statutes and ordynances for them, which by her "officers she commanded to be rede four tymes a year. "And often tymes by her self she wolde so lovyngly 10 courage every of them to do well, and some tyme by "other meane persons. If ony faccyons or bendes were

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made secretly amongst her hede officers, she with great "polycye dyde boulte it oute, and lykewyse if ony stryfe "or controversy, she wolde with grete discrecyon study 15 "the reformacyon thereof. For the straungers, O mervaylous God! what payn, what labour she of her veray "gentleness wolde take with them to bere them maner "and company, and entrete every person and entertayne "them according to their degree and havour, and pro- 20 "vyde by her own commandment, that nothynge sholde "lacke, that myghte be convenyent for them, wherein "she had a wonderful redy remembraunce and perfect 'knowlege"."

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Tyson in a letter to Mr Gough, 25
dated Sept. 18, 1776, observes:
"where lady Margaret's house
"stood at Colliweston, now stands
"a modern house built by the
"Tryon family. Some of the walls 30
"and part of a kind of tower of the
"old mansion remain. The old
"vaults are still there, and (per-
"haps 40 years ago) some bones
"were found. The house is haunt- 35
"ed, as you may suppose : а
"most charming situation it is."
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes VIII
621, 622.

1 Nicholas's Royal Wills 366.
2 Bishop Fisher's Mornynge Re-
membrance 14, 15.


At Easter 1489 we find the countess and her husband the earl of Derby at Hertford, where the king and queen kept their court1.

About this time William Caxton printed "The hys5"torye of kynge Blanchardyne and queen Eglantyne his "wyfe." This he had translated from french into english at the command of the countess, to whom he dedicated the work in the following terms:


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"Vnto the right noble puyssaunt and excellent pryn"cesse my redoubted lady my lady Margarete duchesse of "Somercete, moder vnto our natural and souerayn lord and "most crysten kynge Henry the seuenth by the grace "of God kyng of englonde and of ffraunce lord of yrelonde "etc. I, Wyllyam Caxton his most indigne humble subgette 15 "and lytil seruaunt presente this lytyl boke I late receyued in frenshe from her good grace and her com"maundement wyth alle, ffor to reduce and translate it "in to our maternal and englysh tongue, whiche boke I "had longe to fore solde to my sayde lady and knewe wel 20" that the storye of hit was honeste and joyefull to all "vertuouse yong noble gentylmen and wymmen for to "rede therin as for their passe tyme, for vnder correction "in my jugement hystoryes of noble fayttes and valyaunt actes of armes and warre which haue ben achyeued in "olde tyme of many noble prynces, lordes and knyghtes, "as wel for to see and knowe their walyauntnes for to "stand in the specyal grace and loue of their ladyes, And "in lyke wyse for gentyl yonge ladyes and damoysellys for to lerne to be stedfaste and constaunt in their parte 30" to theym that they ones haue promysed and agreed to "suche as haue put their lyues ofte in jeopardye for to "playse theym to stande in grace, As it is to occupye "the yen and studye over moche in bokes of contempla"cion. Wherfore at thynstaunce and requeste of my 35 "sayd lady, whiche I repute as for a commaundemente, I "haue reduced this sayd boke out of frenshe in to englyshe: "whiche boke specyfyeth of the noble actes and fayttes "of warre achyeued by a noble and victorious prynce "named Blanchardin sone vnto the kynge of ffryse, for the 1 Leland Collect. edit. 1770 iv 246.



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"loue of a noble pryncesse called Eglantyne other wyse "named in frensche lorguylleuse damours, whiche is as "moche to say in englyshe as the proude ladye of loue "quene of tormaday: And of the grete aduentures, labo"rous anguysshes, and many other great dyseases of theym 5 "bothe to fore they myghte atteyne for to come to the "finall conclusion of their desired loue, as a longe by the grace of god it shall be shewed in thistorye of thys "present book, bysechynge my sayd ladyes bountyous grace to receyue this lityll boke in gree of me her 10 "humble seruaunt, and to pardonne me of the rude and "comyn englyshe, where as shall be found faulte, ffor I "confesse me not lerned ne knowynge the arte of rethoryke, ne of such gaye termes as now be sayd in "these dayes and vsed. But I hope that it shall be 15 "vnderstonden of the redars and herers: And that shall suffyse. Besechynge allmyghty god to graunte to her "moste noble goode grace longe lyffe and thaccomplysshe"ment of hir hihe noble and joyes desires in thys present "lyff: and after this shorte and transytorye lyff euer 20 "lastynge lyff in heuen Amen1." It is certainly not a little singular that Caxton should address his patroness by the title of duchess of Somerset, to which she appears to have had no claim whatever.

With the university of Cambridge the name of the 25 "lady Margaret," as the countess is there usually denominated, is indissolubly connected; but it is observable, that the earliest mention of her name in connexion with that place occurs in the records of the town. The treasurers of the corporation in their accounts for the year 30 ending the 9th September 1489 claim allowance for the following payments:


"In spices viz. 6 lbs. of cowmfetts given to the mother "of the lord the king 6s. 8d. And in one flagon of "ipocras3 given to the same 3s. 4d. And for roasting a 35

1 Ames's Typographical Antiquities, edit. Herbert 1 98; edit. Dibdin 1 346.

accounts of Philip de Castro about 1289. Retrospective Review N.S. i 274. 2 Charges for 3 "ginger comfeit "and other spicery" occur in the

Ipocras was red wine spiced and sweetened. See a receipt for 40

"buck given by the mother of the lord the king 2s. And "in three pike fish given to the same lady 12s. In "reward given to one of the servants of the mother of "the lord the king for carrying a buck from the said 5 "mother of the lord the king unto the mayor and burgesses of the town of Cambridge aforesaid 20d.""

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On the 29th November 1489 the queen was delivered of a daughter, at whose birth the countess was present: on the following day (being the feast of St Andrew) the 10 young princess (afterwards queen of Scots and progenitrix of all our monarchs since the death of queen Elizabeth) was baptized in Westminster Abbey, with the ceremonies then usual on such occasions, by John Alcock bishop of Ely. She received the name of Margaret in compliment 15 to the countess of Richmond, who was her godmother, and whose present consisted of "a chest of silver and "gilt full of gold"."

The Christmas of 1489 and the Candlemas of the following year were spent by the countess of Richmond 20 with the king, queen and court at Westminster, her husband being also present. On new year's day she gave the officers of arms 20s., her husband giving the same sum. During Christmas the royal party were entertained with "an abbot of misrule that made much sport and did 25 "right well his office." On Candlemas day the countess with the king and queen, the ambassadors of France, Castille etc. and the greater part of the lords spiritual and temporal, went in grand procession to Westminster Hall; where divine service suitable to the day was

30 making it in Arnold's Chronicle, edit. 1811 p. 107.

1 Rot. Compot. Thesaur. Vill. Cantabr. 4 & 5 Hen. VII.

2 Leland Collect., edit. 1770 IV

35 245, 253, 254.

3 As to the abbot or lord of misrule see Brand's Popular Antiquities, edit. Ellis 1 387. Nicolas's Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York 40 209. Warton's History of English Poetry, edit. 1824 11 208. Excerpta Historica 88, 92, 106, 129. Kempe's

Loseley Manuscripts 23 to 54, 85 to 87. Sir Henry Ellis's Letters, first series 1 271, 273. An account of the Christmas prince, etc. Lond. 4to 1816. Hone's Year Book 327. Sir Frederick Madden's Memoir of Queen Mary xxviii. Collier's Annals of the Stage 1 42, 71–73, 142, 143, 149 to 156. Abbot by Sir Walter Scott, edit. 1831 I 191, 206. Wood's Hist. and Antiq. of Oxford, edit. Guteh II 136. Fuller's Cambridge, edit. Prickett and Wright 301.

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