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performed "in pontificalibus" by Richard Fox bishop of Exeter and lord privy seal. On this occasion the countess's taper was borne by Sir William Knevet. In the evening she accompanied the king and queen to Whitehall "and ther hed a pley and after a voyde1."


In 1490 the countess (as grantee for that turn only under the abbey of Ouston) presented to the church of Ouston in Leicestershire Thomas Ridley chaplain, who in the same year was instituted on her presentation to Overston in Northamptonshire, to which living she pre- 10 sented on three subsequent occasions. The instrument of presentation to the former benefice is dated at the manor of Ewelme in Oxfordshire, which was probably at this period in the hands of the crown by reason of the attainder of the countess's first guardian, William de la 15 Pole duke of Suffolk, who acquired it by marriage with Alice the granddaughter of Geoffrey Chaucer the poet. It was restored to the duke's grandson Edmund de la Pole duke of Suffolk in 1495'.

A familiar letter is extant from the countess of Rich- 20 mond to the earl of Ormond the queen's chamberlain (apparently while the latter was abroad) in acknowledgement of a present he had made her of a pair of gloves, that were too large for her hand, which, she intimates, arose from the ladies of the country where he then was 25 being as large in their persons, as they were elevated in rank. A copy of this letter is subjoined:

"My lord chambyrlayn y thanke yow hertyly that ye "lyste soo sone remēbyr me wth my glovys the whyche wer


ryght good save they wer to myche for my hand. y 30 "thynke the ladyes y that partyes be gret ladyes all, and

1 Leland Collect., edit. 1770 1v 255, 256. "A voyde" appears to have been a repast or collation of ipocras or other sweet wines and comfits or spices. See Collection of Ordinances for the government of the Royal Household 36, 110, 113. Nichols (Progresses of James the First 1 513 n.) defines "voydye" as "a basket or tray generally spelt

'voider;' thus Decker 'Piers Ploughman laid the cloth and Simplicity brought in the voider.' Gull's Hornbook, ch. 1."

2 Nichols's Leicestershire II 762. 3 Bridges's Northamptonshire I 460.

4 Nicolas's Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York 194.



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accordyng to ther gret astate they have gret personages. "As for newes her y ame seure ye shall have more seurte "then y can send yow, blessed be god, the kyng the 66 queñe and all oure swet chyldryn be yn good hele, the 5" quen hath be a lytyll crased, but now she ys well, god "be thankyd, her sykenes ys [not] soo good as y wuld, but "y truste hastyly yt shall wt godds grasse, whom y pray "gyve yow good sped y your gret maters and bryng "you well and soon home, wrety at Shene the xxv day 10" of aprel

(( To my lord

M. Rychemound.

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Amongst the countess of Richmond's family estates 15 was the manor of Woking in Surrey, which, having escheated to the crown on the attainder of Henry duke of Somerset, had been made a royal palace by Edward IV. On the accession of Henry VII however that monarch granted it to his mother, and she resided there 20 till her death. The king occasionally visited her at Woking, and one of these visits appears to have taken place in September 14902.

The countess of Richmond, like most persons of rank at that period, retained or at least patronised a band of 25 minstrels, who were accustomed occasionally to perambulate the country under the sanction of her name. The treasurers of Cambridge for the year 1491 in their accounts with the corporation of that place made a charge of five pence, as paid by them "in red wine given to her 30" minstrels of the lady the mother of the lord the king "this year"."

The countess became possessed of the advowson of Swineshead in Lincolnshire by purchase from Thomas West lord Delawarr, who conveyed it to her by a charter 35 of feoffment. The letter of attorney, empowering William

1 Excerpta Historica 285. Baines's History of Lancashire 1


2 Manning and Bray's Hist. of 40 Surrey 1 122. Rymer's Foedera

XII 400, 403, 405, 408, 410, 412 417, 429.

3 Rot. Compot. Thesaur. Vill. Cantab. 6 and 7 Hen. VII.

Smyth dean of St. Stephen's Westminster (afterwards bishop of Lincoln and one of the founders of Brasenose college Oxford) to take possession on her behalf, is dated 10th March 7th Henry VII (1491—2)1.

It may here be mentioned, that the countess was once 5 entertained at Cressy Hall in the parish of Surflet Lincolnshire, the seat of Henry Heron esq.; the bed on which she lay had in Dr. Stukeley's time been removed to a farm house by the fen side, called Wrigbolt, where the doctor saw it: he describes it, as "a very old fashioned 10 "oak bed with panels of odd embossed work, like many "we see in old country houses"."

In the seventh of Henry VII the king granted a licence, by virtue of which the estates, which in the reign of Edward IV had been conveyed to the use of the 15 countess's will, were vested in Richard Fox bishop of Exeter, Sir Elias Daubeney, Wm. Smyth dean of St Stephen's Westminster, Sir Thomas Lovell, Sir Wm. Hody chief baron of the exchequer, and Richard Emson (the well known instrument of the king's fiscal exactions).


On the 14th June 1492 William Smyth dean of St Stephen's Westminster, who has been previously mentioned, was instituted to the rectory of Cheshunt in Hertfordshire on the presentation of the countess, who had established her right to the advowson in a court of 25 law in opposition to a claim made by the dean and chapter of Windsor*.

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By an act of parliament passed 1492 one John Hayes of Tiverton in Devonshire gentleman was attainted of misprision of treason, and it was enacted that he should forfeit all offices, fees and annuities, held by grant of the 5 king's mother1.

The famous cardinal Beaufort had purchased of Henry VI for 13,000 marks the manors of Amesbury and Wynterbourne in the county of Wilts, and Henxstrigge and Charlton Canvile in Somersetshire. The countess of 10 Richmond, as heiress to the cardinal who was her great uncle, claimed these estates, which had also been claimed by Alice countess of Salisbury, as heir general of her grandfather John Montague earl of Salisbury, who previous to his attainder in the reign of Henry IV had 15 been tenant in tail male of the manors in question. The countess of Salisbury in the first of Edward IV obtained an act of parliament for reversing her grandfather's attainder and vesting in her all the estates he had forfeited, and under this act she entered into possession of the 20 estates above mentioned. On a representation of these facts a statute was passed in 1492, by which it was provided that the act of Edward IV should not prejudice the claim of the countess of Richmond, and that she might enter upon the lands in dispute, notwithstanding 25 any estate vested in the countess of Salisbury or those who claimed under her2.

1 Rot. Parl. vI 454—5.

2 Ibid. VI 446.



Employs Maurice Westbury to educate young gentlemen. Ordinances for mourning apparel. The king visits Colyweston 1493. Swineshead and Agmondesham. Barrow's obiit at Cambridge. Smyth, bishop of Lichfield. Cheshunt. Minstrels. Lady of Pewe. Creation of prince Henry as duke of York. St Wenefrede's well. King at Latham, Knowsley and Colyweston 1495. St John's hospital, Lichfield. John Fisher, proctor of Cambridge. Grant of Hunsdon Hertfordshire. Jesus college Cambridge. Chantries at Westminster, Winborn and Windsor. Visits Norwich. Poet. Divinity professorships. Death of viscount Welles. Brecknock. Private chapel. Baptism of prince Edmund.

IN the year 1493 the countess addressed letters (dated Windsor January 12th) to the chancellor and regents of the university of Oxford, requesting them to dispense with the absence of Maurice Westbury of that university, as he was retained by her for the purpose of instructing 5 "certain young gentlemen at her finding1." This Maurice

1 Churton's Lives of Smyth and Sutton 13. Wood's Hist. and Antiq. of Oxford, by Gutch 1 655. Among whom, as we shall see below, was the eldest son of the earl of Northumberland. This was according to a practice much more ancient than the time of Wolsey, agreeable to which young men of the most exalted rank resided in the families of distinguished ecclesiastics under the denomination of pages, but more probably for the purpose of education than of service. In this way Sir Thomas More was brought up under cardinal Morton archbishop of Canterbury, of whom he

has given a very interesting cha-
racter in his Utopia. From Fiddes's
appendix to the Life of Wolsey p.
23 it appears that the custom was IO
at least as old as the time of
Grosthed bishop of Lincoln in the
reign of Henry III and that it con-
tinued for some time during the
seventeenth century. In a paper 15
written by the earl of Arundel in
the year 1620 and intitled 'Instruc-
tions for you my son William how
to behave yourself at Norwich' the
earl charges him, "you shall in all 20
things reverence, honour and obey
my lord bishop of Norwich, as you
would do any of your parents,

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