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justs, banquets and disguisings, which took place in and near Westminster Hall in honour of the prince's marriage. These festivities continued for upwards of a week, and it is recorded that on Sunday the 21st November the coun5 tess participated in a "great and a goodly bankett" in the parliament chamber, and that she was present at an interlude and a disguising with dances', which were exhibited in Westminster Hall on the same evening.

At the conclusion of the justs etc. the court on the 10 26th November removed to Richmond by water; the earl of Derby had a barge and the countess of Richmond another "right goodly covred paynted and beseen3."

The countess appears to have been present on the following Sunday at Richmond, where after divine service 15 the nobles amused themselves with tables, bills, dice and cards, butts for archers, bowling alleys "and other goodly and pleasant disports." The court were also entertained with the feats of a Spanish rope-dancer, and after evensong there was a disguising, a dance and a void.

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1 "A disguising with dances " was a masquerade dance. See Collier's Annals of the Stage xvii.

2 Antiquarian Repertory, edit. 1807 II 303 etc. Leland Collect.

edit. 1770 v 356 etc.

3 Antiquarian Repertory, edit. 1807 II 312*.

4 Ibid. 317* etc.

CHAPTER VIII.

1502-1503.

Dr John Fisher appointed her chaplain and confessor. Her mortification, devotion and charity. Grant in favour of priory of St James, Deeping. A justice of the peace. Adjusts disputes between the university and town of Cambridge. Letters from that university to the countess. New year's present to the queen. Publishes a book of prayers. Admitted into fraternity at several monasteries. Litterae Sororitatis of the monks of Durham. Benefactress to Thorney, Peterborough, Croyland, Bourn and Spalding monasteries. Admitted a member of St Katharine's gild at Stamford and Corpus Christi gild Boston. Patronises Dr Atkinson's translation of the treatise on the imitation of Jesus Christ, and a revised edition of the Sarum Breviary. Marriage of the princess Margaret and of Eleanor and Elizabeth Zouche. Accounts of the proctors of Cambridge.

It was about 1502 that the countess appointed as her chaplain Dr John Fisher master of Michaelhouse in Cambridge (and afterwards bishop of Rochester), a man of considerable learning for the age in which he lived, who had even at this period of his life acquired great 5 reputation for his extraordinary devotion'. It has been

1 The Archaeologia (xxv 61—99) contains "observations on the cir"cumstances which occasioned the "death of Fisher bishop of Roches"ter" by John Bruce esq. F.S.A. The learned author considers it " "a "shame to our biographers that "there does not at this time exist "a life of bishop Fisher of any "value or authority," and he thus justly appreciates the bishop's character: "Fisher was a zealous de"fender of the Roman catholic "church against the attacks of the "Lutherans. He wrote against the

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before stated that he was known to the countess as early as 1495 he had not long been chaplain, before he was selected as her confessor (a situation, in which he succeeded Dr Richard Fitzjames successively bishop of Ro5 chester, Chichester and London') and from this period he appears to have exercised very extensive influence on the mind of the countess, and it is generally allowed that it was in consequence of his suggestions that she was induced to bestow a considerable portion of her bounty 10 upon that university of which he was so distinguished a member.

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Her confessor gives the following vivid description of her mortification, devotion and charity about this period: "In prayer every daye at her uprysynge, which co15 "mynly was not long after five of the clok, she began "certain devocyons, and so after them, with one of her gentlewomen, the matynes of our Lady, which kept her "to then, she came into her closet, where then with her chaplayne she said also matynes of the daye; and after 20" that dayly herde four or fyve masses upon her knees, so "continuing in her prayers and devocyons unto the hour "of dyner, which of the etynge day was ten of the cloke, "and upon the fastynge day eleven. After dyner full truely she wolde goe her statyons to thre aulters dayly, 25" dayly her dyryges and commendacyons she wolde saye, "and her even songs before souper, both of the day and of our Lady, besyde many other prayers and psalters of

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"professorships and other scho"lastic endowments; and his per30 "sonal affection for literature

"may be inferred from his col"lecting one of the best libraries "in England, and also from his "undertaking the study of Greek 35 "when the knowledge of that lan

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"travels he had ever found a pre"late of equal worth and ability "with the bishop of Rochester. "His friend and correspondent "Erasmus makes frequent mention "of him, and dwells with pleasure "upon the blamelessness of his "life, the peculiar kindness of his "manner, his learning and noble"mindedness."

66 guage was revived in England, "although he was then upwards of "60 years of age. Fisher's repu"tation was equivalent to his 40 "merit. Henry VIII held him in

"peculiar esteem, and inquired of "cardinal Pole whether in all his

1 Bishop Fisher's Mornynge Remembrance 13, 14. In Newcome's St Albans 403 bishop Oldham is spoken of as having been the countess's confessor.

"Davyde thrughout the yeare; and at nyghte before she "went to bedde she fayled.not to resort unto her chappell "and there a large quarter of an houre to occupye her "devocyons. No mervayle, though all this long time her "knelynge was to her paynful, and so paynful, that many 5 "tymes it caused in her backe payne and dysease: and "yet nevertheless dayly, when she was in helthe, she "fayled not to say the crowne of our Lady, which after "the maner of Rome conteyneth sixty and thre Aves1, "and at every Ave to make a knelynge. As for medita- 10 "cyon she had divers bokes in Frenshe, wherewith she "wolde occupye her self, when she was weary of prayer?."

"Her sober temperance in metes and drynkes was "known to all them that were conversant with her, where"in she lay in as grete wayte of her self, as ony person 15 "myghte, kepynge alway her strayte mesure and offen

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dynge as lytell, as ony creature myghte: eschewynge "banketts, rere-soupers, joucryes betwixt meles. As for fastynge, for aege and feebleness albeit she were not "bounde, yet those days, that by the chirche were ap- 20 "pointed, she kept them diligently and seriously, and in especyall the holy Lent, throughout that she restrayned "her appetyte till one mele of fyshe on the day; besides "her other peculer fastes of devocyon, as St Anthony, "St Mary Maudelyn, St Katheryne, with other; and 25 "theroweout all the yere the Friday and Saturday she "full truely observed. As to harde clothes wearynge,. "she had her shertes and gyrdyls of heere, which when "she was in helthe, everi weke she fayled not certayn "days to weare, sometyme the one, sometyme the other, 30

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"that full often her skynne, as I heard her say, was perced "therewith 1."

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He also tells us, that she was "houshylde "" nearly a dozen times a year3, and that "her tongue was occupyed "in prayer moche parte of the daye; her legges and fete in "vysytynge the aulters and other holy places, going her statyons customably whan she were not let; her handes "in gyvynge almes to the poore and nedye, and dressynge "them also, whan they were syke, and mynystrynge unto IO" them mete and drynke"."

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As lady of the manor of Deeping in Lincolnshire the countess of Richmond was entitled to molendinary privileges of an exclusive character. These however were

1 Bishop Fisher's Mornynge Re15 membrance 10, 11.

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24 'Houshylde," i. e. received the sacrament. See note on this word in Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York 202.

3 Bishop Fisher's Mornynge Remembrance 13.

4 Ibid. 21. The countess of Richmond "during her lif kept "a yerely Maundy." Sir Henry 25 Ellis's Letters, first series II 27.

5 Daines Barrington in his Observations on the Statutes (edit. 1766 p. 170) says that the obligation to grind at the lord's mill and 30 at no other was by no means gene

ral in England and had at last been almost universally dropt from the great difficulty of enforcing the right. The ancient remedy for a 35 violation of the privilege was the

writ called secta ad molendinum (see Fitzherbert's Natura Brevium, edit. 1677 p. 271). This writ is one of a numerous class abolished 40 by the statute [3 & 4] of Will. IV. c.

[27 s. 36]. See a local act 2 Vict. cap. XVII "An act for discharging the in"habitants of the manor of Leeds in "the township and parish of Leeds 45 "in the county of York from the

"custom of grinding corn, grain and

"malt at certain water corn mills "in the said manor and for making "compensation to the proprietor "of the said mills." The compensation to be paid to the proprietor £13,000. [Mr Cooper placed here an advertisement of the time: 'Leeds Soke Abolition Act.-Notice is hereby given, that, pursuant to the provisions of an Act passed in the second year of her present majesty, intituled "An Act for dis"charging the inhabitants of the

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'manor of Leeds, in the township "and parish of Leeds, in the county "of York, from the custom of "grinding corn, grain, and malt at "certain water corn mills in the "said manor; and for making com'pensation to the proprietor of the "said mills," a special session of the justices of the peace acting in and for the borough of Leeds aforesaid, will be held at the court-house in Leeds, on Monday, the 16th of December next, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, to be a court of appeal, for the hearing and determining of all disputes respecting the claims of exemption from the rates to be levied by virtue of the said act, of all persons claiming to be exempt from the soke of Leeds mills, in

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