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peculiar sign, which, exhibited on some portion of the apparel of a pilgrim on his return, indicated the particular pilgrimage he had undertaken ; that of St. James of Compostella was the escallop shell found on the sea shore of Galicia. Small copper shells were also manufactured, and these decorated some part of the garb, or its accessories, of the pilgrim on his return.
The Rev. Dr. Raven, Head Master of the Grammar School, Great Yarmouth, has one of these shells or signs made of copper. Of this, a representation of the size of the original is here given.
Dr. Raven's account of its discovery, and where, as communicated to me, is as follows :"On April 11th, 1878, I visited Dunwich with a view of determining the route of the ninth Iter in the British part of Antonine's Itinerary. Mr. A. B. Cooper of Westwood Lodge, Blythburgh, was with me. There were two labourers at work in the field within the Grey Friars’ wall. We asked them if they had found anything lately, knowing that Roman coins had been picked up at Dunwich. One of them replied that his companion had just now lighted upon 'this here', which he presumed to be without interest, but I thought otherwise, and bought it of him there and then. It is of copper, and had a hole in the shank, by which I attached it to the ring of my watch chain.”
I am indebted to Dr. Raven for a photograph of this interesting relic, of the size of the original, from which the above engraving has been made. I have not met with a similar example.
In Les Délices de L'Espagne, tome premier, published A.D. 1715, one of the engravings is entitled, “Procession des Pélerins à Compostelle”. In this a vast number of pilgrims are introduced.
The late Mr. George Edmund Street, F.S.A., the celebrated architect, in his admirable work, Some Account of Gothic Architecture in Spain, published A.D. 1865, in treating of Compostella, tells us, “ If the cathedral be left out of consideration Santiago is a disappointing place. There is none of the evidence of the presence of pilgrims which might be expected, and I suspect a genuine pilgrim is a very rare article indeed. I never saw more than one, and he proclaimed his intentions only by the multitude of his scallop shells fastened on wherever his rags would allow; but I fear much he was a professional pilgrim ; he was begging lustily at Zaragoza, and seemed to have been many years there on the same errand, without getting very far on his road.”
The Rev. Dr. Husenbeth, in his Emblems of Saints, shows us how St. James the Greater, the Apostle, was represented as depicted on various rood screens in Norfolk; the peculiar pilgrim's garb is not, however, noticed by him. At Turnstead and Lessingham, St. James appears as a pilgrim with a staff. At Worstead and Edingthorpe, with a staff and shell. At Blofield, with a staff, shell, hat, and wallet. At Ringland, with a staff and wallet, the latter with a shell upon it. At Ranworth, with a staff and book. At Belaugh and Trunch, as holding a shell.
Molanus, De Historia SS. Imaginum, thus treats of the representation of St. James with the staff and shell,
Quod vero ad Sanctum Jacobum Compostellanum attinet, cum Baculo et Conchâ quæ Sancti Jacobi dici solet, cum ob id pingi arbitror, quia ad Hispanias usque ambulavit, ut ibi apostolicâ legatione fungeretur; et Compostella corporaliter Patronus quiescit, unde Peregrinantes conchas hujusmodi referunt.” In a note, apparently by Paquot, the foregoing statement
is somewhat doubted. "Fertur impositum navigio Divi Jacobi corpus Iriam Flaviam delatum, inde Cömpostellam; postea sæviente persequutione sub humo occultatum, anno 816 detectum fuisse (Baronius ad an. 816). Sed hæc nullo idoneo teste narrantur. Venantius Fortunatus existimabat ætate sua, id est, medio sæculo VI, S. Apostoli exuvias in Palæstina servari.” By this it will appear that the truth of the legend, connecting St. James the Apostle with Compostella, was not universally acquiesced in. In the “Vision of Piers Ploughman”, said to have been written by Robert Longland, a secular priest, about the year 1362, a pilgrim in his garb is thus described :
“A paraild as a Paynym in Pylgrymes wise,
He bar a bordon y bound with a brod lyste
And by hus sygnes wham he sought hadde.” In this passage we have the staff mentioned as the bordon; the scrip mentioned as a bagge; the hatte; the shilles of Galys, the scallop shells of Galicia; hanypeles, ampullæ, small cruets of metal ; Syse, Sicily; crouche, cross; cloke, sclavine; fernicle, venicle ; lastly, to quote from Sir Walter Raleigh,
“Give me my scallop-shell of Quiet;
My Staff of Faith to walk upon ;
My Bottle of Salvation;
M. H. BLOXAM. Rugby. 24 October 1883.
CROSSES AT ST. EDREN'S CHURCH,
Sr. Edren's Church lies nine miles, as the crow flies, to the north-west of the town of Haverfordwest in Pembrokeshire. It is situated on high ground almost in the centre of the promontory which runs out of the mainland of Pembrokeshire and terminates in St. David's Head. A mile to the northward runs the Via Flandrica, as marked on the Ordnance Map. The church stands alone, in rather a dreary solitude, being surrounded by no village or houses of any kind. The present structure is entirely modern, and is built in the debased Gothic style. All that now remains to bear witness to the existence of a more ancient building upon the present site are the four crosses to be described, and the ruined font lying broken in the north-west part of the church yard.
Three of the crosses lie at the foot of the tower of the church, and the fourth stands erect in the churchyard, on the north side. The three small slabs are of sandstone, perhaps from Nolton, and the erect cross is of red slate similar to that found near St. David's. The following is a description of the stones, which are shown on the accompanying engraving, drawn to the scale of three-quarters of an inch to the foot, being carefully reduced from rubbings, and corrected from sketches.
No. 1 measures 2 feet 3 inches long by 1 foot 3 inches broad, and is 6 inches thick. The stone is rounded at the top, and the cross section is elliptical, the centre portion being raised and sloping away on each side. The stone seems to have been formed by nature into
1 Explanation of plate : No. 1, left hand upper corner; No. 2, right hand upper corner; No. 3, left hand lower corner ; No. 4, right hand lower corner.