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fate of other castles during the Commonwealth. Of the ruins, the principal feature is a thirteenth century tower, rising from a square basement into a circular form, and surmounted by a polygonal story of later date. In the south-east angle are the remains of a large round tower rising from a square base. On the north side of this tower, and adjacent to it, is a vaulted chamber with a central pier of early Decorated character, from which spring eight ribs terminatiug in as many pilasters on the sides and corners of the chamber. A long day's work and the pressure of time prevented a proper examination of the ground-plan; but it is hoped that at some future time a full and connected account will be printed in the Journal. It only remains here to acknowledge the welcome with which Sir Henry and Lady Beecher received the members of the Association.

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THURSDAY, AUGUST 16TH. BEFORE starting on this day's excursion, several of the members went to examine the stone in Fishguard Churchyard, an account of which, by Professor Westwood, is given at p. 325 of this volume. At ten o'clock a start was made for Goodwic and the Hill of Penrhiw, which, as well as the whole of the promontory of Pencaer, abounds in cromlechs and stone remains. In one place three cromlechs in a line direct north and south stand at a short distance from each other. The first of these, locally called “ Carreg Samson”, has its capstone, 12 ft. 9 in. in length, by 11 ft. in breadth, and an average thickness of 2 ft.; the supporting stones have been displaced, but the line of the enclosing circle is distinct enough. The same remark will apply to numbers two and three. In the second case,

the supporting stones, six and seven feet in length, have given way; the capstone is 12 ft. by 8 ft., with an average thickness of 12 inches. Close to these is a well defined circle, divided by a line through the centre, and approached by a passage which pointed towards a low tumulus. Owing, however, to the great quantity of stones scattered about in all directions, and the luxurious growth of the fern, but little could be made out in the time allowed. Similar remains were passed, in the now enclosed portion of the hill, on the way to the very fine remains which give its name to the field as Parc y Cromlech, near Penrhiw farm-house. This cromlech partakes more of the nature of a very large cistvaer than any of the others, as the capstone, which averages 13 ft. by 7 ft., and lies east and west, rests upon supports laid lengthwise, and not upright; that on the south side being 10 ft. long, and 3 ft. 6 in. above the ground. At an angle of the cross roads, on the way to Llanwnda, stands a stone with an inscribed cross, one of four that existed within memory. On the north-west slope of the Garn, just above the village of Llanwnda, are the remains of another cromlech, which bowever has slipped considerably out of position. It has, indeed, been asserted that the stone is simply a slab of rock which has slipped down to its present position, but the discovery, some years ago, of an arn and bones beneath it must settle the question. Fenton speaks of it as such, and seems to have had no doubt as to its nature.

Llanwnda Church is cruciform, the transepts being widened into chantry chapels; that on the north side is stone vaulted. The stairs to the rood-loft exist, as also the corbels in the walls by which it was supported. A stone seat runs round the west end. The porch has a squint. The font is rude and of the local type-a square bason supported by a round pillar standing on a square base. At the junction of the nave and chancel is the small beltry for the Sanctus bell, similar to the one at Spittal. The chancel walls, lately rebuilt, have several early crosses built up into them which were found in the foundations. The chalice and paten have each of them the same maker's initials, but the date mark is different. Both were looted by the French on their memorable landing, and when offered for sale, were identified by the inscription on the chalice, POCULUM ECLESIE DE LANWNDA, and restored to the churchwardens. On the way from the village, at Pont Eglwys, there is a stone with a cross inscribed on it, which now forms one of the supporters of the bridge.

At the farm-house of Llanwnwr, a number of graves dug in the surface of the rock were seen in the yard, and a small one was opened for the occasion. They were not more than a foot in depth; and some of them were said to have contained ashes as well as bones. A sculptured stone, now serving as a gate-post, was found near it, and in the dingle, a little below the house, the remains of a quern.

On the summit of Garn Vawr is a remarkable stone fortress, similar in character to, though not so extensive as, those on Treceiri and Penmaenmawr. On the north, south, and west, the sides of the hill are steep and difficult of access, and on the west it also overhangs precipitous rocks. On the east and more accessible side it is defended by two strong walls of loose stones. Here and there, and notably at the outer entrance on the western slope, may be seen the remains of loose and wide jointed primitive masonry. Close to the inner walls of the camp proper, is plainly seen a range of stone circles, the remains of huts.

Passing thence rapidly by the moated earthwork of Castell Poeth, where some years ago a number of urns were unearthed, the members next examined, at the village of St. Nicholas, the stone with the following inscription : TUNCCETACEUX SORDAARIHICIA cit. The church consists of chancel and nave, with a vaulted chapel on the south side, connected with the chancel by one of the Pembrokeshire passages or enlarged squints reaching to the ground. The font is of the local type. The west end is original, and has a remarkably massive buttress.


· Rhys, Lectures on Welsh Philology, p. 406; Fenton's Pembrokeshire, p. 23.

The cromlech at Trellys, although not so large as some of the others that were seen this day, stands on the brow of a hill to the south of the village. The capstone is 7 ft. 6 in. in length, by 6 ft. 3 in. in breadth, with an average thickness of 1 ft. 9 in. Two of the supporting stones are 5 ft. 5 in. and 6 ft. respectively in height. On the way home the members halted to examine the great oval earthwork at Hendre Wen. Its diameter taken lengthwise is 80 yards, and across 80 yards. The circumference measured along the top of the vallam is 240 yards. The external dyke is deep and wide, and for the most part still perfect. The surrounding ground level and unbroken.

At the evening meeting the President, in opening the proceedings, corrected a statement in his inaugural address by saying he was glad to find that Sir Marteine Lloyd still retained his privilege, as Lord Marcher, of appointing the Mayor of Newport. He then called on Professor Babington to give a résumé of the day's proceedings.

The Rev. D. H. Davies of Cenarth read a paper on the earth works of the parish of Llanon.

The Rev. E. L. Barnwell proposed, and Mr. H. W. Lloyd seconded, a vote of thanks to the Local Committee, and especially to Mr. H. Llwyd Harries, the Chairman.

A vote of thanks was also given to the Curators and contributors to the Museum.

FRIDAY, AUGUST 17. The first halt to-day was made at Loughouse, to inspect the cromlech mentioned by Fenton, the capstone of which was six supports, is 18 ft. long, 9 ft. 8 ins. wide, and 4 ft. 6 ins. at the thickest part. Fenton's measurements are, 16 ft. to 18 ft. in length. A section of the company went to explore an ancient work which Fenton thought was a summer camp of the Romans. A difference of opinion exists on that point; but none can exist as to the beauty of the small bay below, terminated by Strumble Head. Members were received at Longhouse by Mr. Marychurch with ample hospitality. This house was formerly a temporary residence of the Bishop, and according to Fenton Bishop Tully lived there entirely.

When the President bad returned thanks to Mr. Marychurch for his courteous reception, a start was made for St. David's. The Cathedral was first examined under the guidance of the Very Rev. the Dean. The nave, generally assigned to Bishop Peter de Leia (1176-90), consists of six bays. With the exception of the westernmost bay, which is narrower than the rest, all the arches of the main arcades are rounded, the piers being alternately round and octagonal, with shafts attached. The timber ceiling is said to have been erected during the treasurership of Owen Pole (1472-1509). It is of Irish oak,—a wood that is said to be free from rot. It replaces an earlier one which was groined, but had become decayed, according to Fenton. A massive Decorated rood-screen separates the nave from the choir. A vaulted passage of two bays leads through the centre of the screen into the choir. On the south side of the western bay are two compartments containing tombs. In the one adjoining the entrance is the recumbent effigy, on a high tomb, of a priest in eucharistic vestments. The shoes are pointed, and the feet rest against a lion. The compartment beyond this contains a high tomb bearing the recumbent efligy of a bishop who is represented as wearing the mitra pretiosa. Along the south side of the tomb are seen statuettes in relief. The compartinent on the north side contains also the recumbent effigy of a priest. The ritual choir occupies the space beneath the central tower and half the bay beyoud it. The presbytery takes the remaining half of the bay and three bays eastward. Of the four main arches of the tower, the western is circular; the other three, constructed after the fall of the tower in 1220, are pointed. The stalls, the work of Bishop Tully, are twenty-eight in number. The Sovereign is entitled to à stall in the choir. The east end of the presbytery has been restored to the form it presented after the rebuilding of 1220, with the exception that the lower tier of three windows is closed up. On a brass beneath the central window is the inscription, “In honorem Dei, et in memoriam Gulielmi Lucy S.T.P., hujus Ecclesiæ Cathedralis regnante Carolo Secundo præclari Fpiscopi, pietate adductus, dat dedicat Johannes Lucy per multos annos Hampton Lucy Rector. A.D. 1871.” In the third bay from the east, on the south side of the presbytery, are effigies of two bishops side by side. The one on the north is of dark marble, and commemorative of Bishop Anselm. He is represented with a moustache and short, curled beard, vested in eucharistic garments, and wears a mitre; the right hand on the breast, downwards ; the pastoral staff with the crook, which has Early English foliage, and is turned outwards, well defined. Southward of this is another recumbent effigy, on a stone coffin, of a bishop similarly vested; the remains of the pastoral staff, partly enveloped in a veil, are much mutilated. In the middle of the presbytery the altar-tomb of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and father of Henry VII. In the west wall of Bishop Vaughan's Chapel, immediately at the back of the high altar, is a recess in which are placed five crosses ; a larger one in the centre surrounded by four smaller ones. They were discovered in 1866, and are described by the Rev. E. L. Barnwell (Arch. Camb., 1867, p. 68). The illustration here given gives a correct idea of this singular group of openings, giving a view of the series at the altar. In the Lady Chapel, built during the episcopate of Bishop Martyn, are triple sedilia, Decorated insertions, and two tomb-recesses of the same date.

To the north of the Cathedral are the remains of tbe chapel, with a sacristy at the south-east angle of the College of St. Mary, founded by Bishop Adam Houghton.

On the right bank of the Alan, opposite the Cathedral, are the


ruins of the Episcopal Palace, the work of Bishop Gower. impossible to convey any notion of the beauty and details of this magnificent specimen of a bishop's palace, unique, as such, in these islands. The late Mr. C. Norris published, in the early part of this

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Crosses in Bishop Vaughan's Chapel, St. David'g. century, in an oblong quarto, elaborate engravings of these ruins ; a book easily procured, and at a very moderate price.

After partaking of the Dean's hospitality, the members returned to Fishguard. There was no evening meeting.

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