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[ANGLIAN SEE OF WHITHERNE.]

Hibernia, et nonnulla etiam de Brittonibus in Brittania, rationabile et ecclesiasticum Paschalis observantiæ tempus Domino donante suscepit. [M. H. B. 265.]

a The death of Adamnan, with whose efforts to bring Iona to adopt the Roman Easter the above statement is connected, brings the date to A.D. 704 (see Lappenberg, Anglo-Sax., I. Pref. xxxvi. n.). And this excludes all other Britons except those of Strath

clyde, who are also naturally connected with their neighbour Adamnan. The Britons of Damnonia are mentioned separately by Bede (V. 18). And Aldhelm's letter, by which these were (partially) converted, appears to be dated in A.D. 705. See also below, under A.D. 721.

A.D. 721. A Bishop of Strathclyde (?) at a Roman Council".

CONC. ROM. SUB GREGORIO II. (subscriptt.).—Sedulius, Episcopus Britanniæ de genere Scottorum, huic constituto a nobis promulgato subscripsi. [Labb., VI. 1458.]

• An Irishman by name and nation might well be Bishop of Glasgow or Strathclyde in A.D. 721. And the nationality and the locality of Sedulius' companion, and therefore probably neighbour Fergustus Episcopus Scotia Pictus"-certainly suggest Strathclyde as the "Britannia " which was his see. presence at Rome also proves the schism ended,

His

as regards the "Britannia" which he represented. And he was therefore neither Cornish nor Welsh, i. e. he was Cumbrian or of Strathclyde. There is no reliable evidence of dioceseless Bishops among the Britons: see above, in vol. I. p. 143: although in A.D. 721, Fergustus, a Pictish Bishop among the Scots, probably was in that condition.

A.D. 730-803. Anglian See of Whitherne or Candida Casa a. BÆD. H. E., V. 23.—Pecthelm in ea [Ecclesia], quæ Candida Casa vocatur, [præsulatum tenet]; quæ nuper, multiplicatis fidelium plebibus, in sedem pontificatus addita, ipsum primum habet antistitem. [M. H. B. 284.]

a Bede writes this in A.D. 731; but the conquest of Cuningham in A.D. 696, and the probabilities of the case, show that Northumbrians had penetrated along the western side of Strathclyde some forty years before. They had now become numerous enough to require a separate Bishop; having no doubt belonged to Lindisfarne previously, and perhaps to Wilfrid when at York (see above, p. 5, note a). But Wilfrid's Picts were of course those of whom Trumwine had charge, not any imaginary Picts of Galloway at this period. That Trumwine's see was Abercorn and not Candida Casa, and that he ruled over Picts north of the Forth, and not over Galloway, is plain by Bede, in spite of the list at the end of some MSS. of Flor. Wig. There is a tradition in Rich. Hagust., c. XV., that Acca Bishop of Hexham, upon quitting that see in

A.D. 732-733, "Episcopalem sedem in Candida Casa inceperit et præparaverit." Pecthelm (see S. Bonif. Epist. 39, Würdtw., below in vol. III. p. 310) died A.D. 735, and was succeeded in the same year by Frithwald (Flor. Wig.); and Acca's successor at Hexham was consecrated in A.D. 734, although he himself survived until A.D. 740: so that the story must remain unexplained, if it is to be accepted at all. The Anglian succession at Candida Casa lasted until Badulf or Baldwulf or Bealdwlf, the last Bishop (W. Malm. G. P. A., III.), who certainly lived until A.D. 803 (Sim. Dun.). Heathored, who follows him in the so-called Florence's list, is obviously a confusion with a Bishop of Lindisfarne in A.D. 821, of the same name, who is omitted by that list in his right place. How far attempts were made to perpetuate the succession after Badulf does

[LETTER OF ALCUIN.]

But

not appear. Very possibly Heathored of Lindisfarne may have tried to join or rejoin the see to his own. Eardulf of Lindisfarne took refuge at Candida Casa when wandering with S. Cuthbert's relics in A.D. 875-883. Northmen ravages and Pictish immigration, and possibly British reconquest, must have ended any Anglian Episcopate there, and probably any Episcopate at all. That recourse was had between Badulf and Gilla-Aldan to Norwegian Bishops or Bishops of Man or of the Isles, is only conjecture, although not improbable. There is nothing to identify certain suffragans of York, named without their sees in A.D. 929-934, and belonging to no known succession, e. g. Earnulf, Columban,

Ælfric, Escbert, Eadwald, Sexhelm (K., C. D.), with any then still existing Anglian see of Candida Casa. That see of course was enlarged or diminished according to the progress of Northumbrian conquest; and at its largest must have included far more than the revived see of the 12th century. The latter was coextensive probably with the lordship of Galloway, and certainly with Kirkcudbright(Church of S. Cuthbert) west of the river Urr, and Wigtonshire. The former included also Ayrshire (see above, p. 4, noted) and most probably Dumfriesshire (so it would seem by the crosses mentioned in the same note, and by the probabilities of the case).

A.D. 782 × 804a. Letter of Alcuin to the Monks of Whitherne. ALCUINUS, ad Fratres S. Niniani Candida Casa.-Venerandæ dilectionis fratribus in loco Deo servientibus qui dicitur Candida Casa, ALCUINUS DIACONUS, salutem. Deprecor vestræ pietatis unanimitatem, ut nostri nominis habeatis memoriam, et intercedere pro mea parvitate dignemini in ecclesia sanctissimi patris nostri Nynia Episcopi, qui multis claruit virtutibus, sicut mihi nuper delatum est per carmina metricæ artis, quæ nobis per fideles nostros discipulos Eboracensis Ecclesiæ scholasticos directa sunt; in quibus et facientis agnovi eruditionem, et ejus perficientis miracula sanctitatem, per ea quæ ibi legebam. Quapropter obnixius deprecor, ut sanctis orationibus vestris illius me precibus commendare studeatis, quatenus per ejusdem patris vestri piissimas preces et vestræ karitatis assiduas intercessiones peccatorum meorum veniam, Deo Christo miserante, accipere merear; et ad sanctorum pervenire consortia, qui sæculi labores fortiter vicerunt, et ad coronam perpetuæ laudis pervenerunt. Direxi ad sancti patris nostri Nyniga corpus suumb olosericum ob memoriam nostri nominis, ut illius atque vestram piam merear intercessionem habere

semper.

Protegat atque regat Christi vos dextera fratres. [Cott. MSS. Vesp. A. 14, fol. 160; and, partly, Opp. I. 297, Froben.]

a Alcuin went to France A.D. 782, and died A.D. 804.

b? velum.

A.D. 854. Eardulf of Lindisfarne still claims Carlisle as within

his Diocese.

SIM. DUN. Hist. Dun. Eccl., II. 5.—Eardulfus, .............. cathedræ pon

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tificalis [Lindisfarne] gubernacula suscepit, nec minorem quam

[CUMBERLAND AND GALLOWAY STILL REGARDED AS ANGLIAN.] proximis Lindisfarnensium quibusque longe positis Episcopatus sui locis pastoralis curæ sollicitudinem impendebat; quorum Luel, quod nunc Carleol appellatur, non solum proprii juris Sancti Cuthberti fuerat, sed etiam ad sui Episcopatus regimen ab Egfridi Regis temporibus semper adjacebat. [Twysd. 13.]

A.D. 875 × 883. Cumberland and possibly Whitherne still seemingly regarded as Anglian.

SIM. DUN. Hist. Dun. Eccl., II. 11, 12.—Ergo ad hostium fluminis quod Dyrwenta vocatur, omnes simul a, Episcopus et abbas et populus, conveniunt.—And again—Per id quippe temporis, in locum, qui Candida Casa vulgo autem Witerna vocatur, devenerant. [Twysd. 18, 19, 20.b]

a Eardulf Bishop of Lindisfarne and Eadred abbat of Carlisle, after wandering with S. Cuthbert's relics through "tota pene provincia," resolved to embark at the mouth of the Derwent, and transport them to Ireland,-were driven back by a storm, losing overboard S. Cuthbert's gilt and gemmed MS. of the Gos

pels, and after a time came to Whitherne, where the MS. is found unhurt on the shore.

The next mention of S. Ninian's is the legendary statement, that Kenneth II. of Scotland, who began to reign A.D. 970, made a pilgrimage thither. He certainly conquered the district (Chron. in Skene, p. 10).

PERIOD THE SECOND.

UNTIL THE CHURCH OF CUMBRIA WAS UNITED, PARTLY TO THAT OF ENGLAND, PARTLY TO THAT OF SCOTLAND, A.D. 908-1188.

[A.D. 908-1034. Strathclyde, under a separate line of Scottish princes, commonly owning Saxon lordship, extends probably to the eastern and southern boundaries of the subsequent sees of Glasgow and Carlisle, but with a distinct lordship of Galloway before or about A.D. 1000°.

A.D. 1034. It is merged in the Scottish crown and kingdom 4.

A.D. 1053-1114. Bishops of Glasgow consecrated at York. But

A.D. 1070-1091. Scottish Kings rule over Cumberland and Westmoreland as well as
Scottish Cumbria .

A.D. 1092. William Rufus, and A.D. 1122 Henry I., occupy and fortify Carlisle.
A.D. 1107-1124. David Earl of (Scottish) Cumbra-land restores the see of Glasgow,
and as a Scottish see.

A.D. 1126-1133. Sees of Galloway and Carlisle founded respectively by David or
Fergus, and by Henry I., but as subject to York.

A.D. 1136. David regains English Cumberland 8.

A.D. 1138. Synod of Carlisle, under David and the Papal legate, allows the new (English) see of Carlisle.

A.D. 1147. Cumberland (English) with Northumberland and Durham ceded to Scotland
by the Treaty of Carlisle.

A.D. 1157. English Cumbria and the other northern counties surrendered by Malcolm
IV. to Henry II.h

A.D. 1174. The see of Glasgow declared by Pope Alexander III. to depend directly
upon the Pope.

A.D. 1177. Bishop of Galloway summoned to the Synod of Edinburgh as a Scottish
Bishop, but refuses to appear.

A.D. 1188. Bull of Clement III. declaring the independence of the Scottish Church,
includes Glasgow in the list of Scottish sees, but omits Galloway .]

a Donald, brother of Constantine King of Scotland, elected King of Strathclyde, A.D. 908: "Strætglædwali," and their King, submit to Eadweard the Elder, A.D. 921 (A. S. C. 924, Flor. Wig. 921): and " Eugenius Rex Cumbrorum" to Athelstan at Dacre, A.D. 926 (W. Malm. G. R. A., II. 134): are plundered by Northmen, A.D. 921 (Chron. in Skene 407): on the Scottish side at Brunanburh, A.D. 937 (G. Gaimar, M. H. B. 808 a): "Combirland" given by Eadmund to Dovenaldus (V. S. Cadrões) or Donald (Chron. in Skene 204) before A.D. 945: and on Donald's defeat and death at Dunmailraise (Rog.

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Wend., Ann. Camb., Brut y Tyw.) to Malcolm of Scotland, A.D. 945 (A. S. C., Flor. Wig., etc.) a separate Strathclyde Prince again before A.D. 971, when Kenneth of Scotland ravaged Saxonia" as far as Stanemoor, "Cluia," and Dearham (Chron. in Skene 10): "Malcolm Rex Cumbrorum" (son of Donald or Domnaill ob. A.D. 945), homager in A.D. 973 (with, among others, Dufnall or Domnaill of the Welsh Strathclyde, ob. A.D. 975) to Eadgar (A. S. C., Flor. Wig., Rog Wend.), and dies A.D. 997 (Ann. Tig. and Ulton.): Ethelred ravages Cumberland, now the "maxima mansio Dacorum," A.D. 1000 (H. Hunt.,

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About A.D. 945, to the Rerecross on Stanemoor (Chron. in Skene 204): and about same time, usque Loidam civitatem" (the province or district of Leeds) "quæ est confinium Normannorum" (Northumbrian Danes) "et Cumbrorum" (V. S. Cadröes, in Colg. 497) in A.D. 971, "ad Stanmoir et ad Cluiam et ad Stangna Dera'm" (Chron. in Skene 10): in A.D. 1091, to the "provincia Loidis" (Sim. Dun. 216) or "Lothene on Engla-land" (A. S. C.). This would take the district only as far south as about Workington and the Derwent on the coast side, and would include about two-thirds only of Westmoreland on the east; although probably including also the district east of Wetherall in Cumberland up to the present county boundaries of Northumberland and Durham. Further north, the revived earldom of Cumbria A.D. 1107, and see of Glasgow, beginning with the Lennox in Stirlingshire, included eastwards the counties of Lanark, Peebles, Selkirk, and Roxburgh or Teviotdale south of the Tweed, although the last was only taken from Durham diocese ecclesiastically about A.D. 1100. Stirling is described even by Fordu! (VIII. 79) as a" locus marchialis, Scotiam et Britanniam intermedians sive connectens," and again (XII. 20) as ad fines Britanniæ constitutus," and the bridge over the Forth at Stirling as "inter Britanniam et Scotiam, utriusque marginem apprehendens" (quoted by Joseph Robertson, Stat. Eccl. Scot.). And even the Lothians (Loida in Scotland, as e. g. in Sim. Dun.) are called "Britannia Septentrionalis" in the V. S. Kentegern in the Glasgow Chartulary (written A.D. 1147 X 1164). "West

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moringaland" (A. S. C.) or "Westmereland"
(G. Gaimar) seems first mentioned in A.D.
966, when Northmen plundered it. Rog.
Wend, has a 66
Jukil Westmeriæ Rex" in A.D.

973.

66

e Suibne King of the Gallgaedhel died A.D. 1034 (Ann. Tig. and Ulton.); and Rog.Wend. has a Jacobus Rex Galwalliæ" in A.D. 973. Fergus, the earliest known lord of Galloway, was David's contemporary c. 1100 onwards. d See end of note ". A.D. 1037, Eadulf, Earl of Northumbria, devastated the "Britones, id est, Walas" (Sim. Dun. in Hoveden, I. 58).

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• Malcolm Ceanmore holds Cumberland and Westmoreland by force, A.D. 1070 (Sim. Dun. 200) and goes out of Scotland into 'Loidis" or "Lothene," A.D. 1091 (A. S. C., Flor. Wig.): but did homage to William the Conqueror, A D. 1072 (Chron. de Mailros, A. S. C.); William Rufus rebuilds and fortifies Carlisle, A.D. 1092 (Sim. Dun. 217, A. S. C.) : and Henry I., A.D. 1122 (Sim. Dun. 246). f The land of the Bretti" or Cumbraland," but only part of it, i. e. the Scottish part (Inquis. Davidis, about A.D. 1120). David became King of Scotland A.D. 1124.

66

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8 Chron. de Mailros, in an. His son Henry holds it as an English fief from the end of Feb. 1136 (Jo. Hagust. p. 114, ed. Raine).

h Gervas. 1377, 1378; W. Neubrig., II. 1-4; Hoveden, I. 216. The final and absolute surrender was made by Alexander II. to Henry III., A.D. 1237 (Treaty in Rymer, I. 233).

Galloway remained ecclesiastically subject to York (although civilly part of Scotland) until about the middle of the 14th century, and nominally until S. Andrew's became a metropolitan see in A.D. 1472. See below in Append. B. The last claim of Glasgow to Carlisle was in A.D. 1258: see above on p. 2. The customs of" Scot and Bret" were abolished finally by Edward I., Sept. 15, A.D. 1305 (Parliamentary Writs, I. 162). And see also Acts of Parl. Scot., 1. 299.

A.D. 1053 x 1060. Bishops of Glasgow consecrated by Kinsi Archbishop of York a.

......

STUBBS, Act. Pont. Ebor.-Kinsius Magsuem ad Ecclesiam Glescuensem ordinavit Episcopum : similiter et successorem illius Magsuem, Johannem, eidem Ecclesiæ subrogatum consecravit, et ab eis cartam professionis accepit, quæ in conflagratione Eboracensis ecclesiæ a Normannis facta cum.... cæteris cartis combustæ sunt. [Twysd. 1700; from Reg. Magn. Alb. Ebor., as quoted below, p. 14.]

a The facts are probable, the authority suspicious, The only other witnesses on the

subject, both of them adverse, are 1. Ralph of Canterbury, in his letter to Pope Calixtus in

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