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COUNCILS

OF

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

VII.

THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND

DURING THE CELTIC PERIOD,

AND

UNTIL FORMALLY DECLARED INDEPENDENT OF THE SEE OF YORK.

A. D. 400-1188.

Period I.—Before S. Columba. A.D. 400-565.

Britannorum inaccessa Romanis loca, Christo vero subdita. [Tertullian, Adv. Jud. VII.]

Period II.-During the supremacy of the Presbyter-Abbats of Hy.

A.D. 565-849.

Habere autem solet ipsa insula [Hy] rectorem semper abbatem presbyterum, cujus juri et omnis provincia, et ipsi etiam Episcopi, ordine inusitato, debeant esse subjecti, juxta exemplum primi doctoris illius [Columbæ], qui non Episcopus sed presbyter extitit et monachus. [Bæd. H. E., III. 4, A.D. 731.]

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Period III. During the primacy of Dunkeld, A.D. 849-906 (?), and of S. Andrew's, from the latter year until the consecration of Bishop Turgot,

A.D. 1109.

Nondum Scotorum regnum, uti nunc, in dioceses divisum erat; sed quivis Episcoporum, quos ea ætate vitæ sanctimonia cunctis reverendos fecerat, quocunque fuisset loco, sine discrimine pontificia munia obibat. [H. Boeth., X.]

In diebus illis [sc. of Bishop Turgot] totum jus Keledeorum per totum regnum Scotiæ transivit in Episcopatum Sancti Andreæ. [Chron. Dunelm. ap. Selden, Pref. to X. Scriptt. vi.]

Period IV.-York claim of supremacy over the Scottish Church, and formation of the Scottish dioceses. A.D. 1109-1188.

Eboracensis Archiepiscopus habebat omnes trans Humbram Episcopos suæ ditioni subjectos, . . . . et omnes Episcopos Scotia et Orcadum. [W. Malm. G. R. A., III., A.D. 1114 X 1123.]

Cum ipse [David Rex] in toto Scottorum regno tres vel quatuor tantum inveniret Episcopos,...ipse tam de antiquis quas reparavit, quam de novis quas ipse erexit, decedens novem reliquit. [Ailred. Rieval, Geneal. Reg. Angl., in Twysd. X. Scriptt. 348: c. A.D. 1153.]

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND

DURING THE CELTIC PERIOD,

AND

UNTIL DECLARED INDEPENDENT OF THE SEE OF YORK.

A.D. 400-1188.

PERIOD THE FIRST.

BEFORE S. COLUMBA, A.D. 400-565.

[i. A.D. 400-565. Church of the Southern Picts.

A.D. 400 (?). Conversion of the Southern Picts by S. Ninian".
After A.D. 430. Mission of S. Palladius".

A.D. 450-500. S. Serf said to have preached at Culross on the Forth, and
S. Ternan at Banchory-Ternan on the Dee".

ii. A.D. 503-565. Church of the Dalriad Scots.

A.D. 503. Feargus Mor Mac Earca, and Loarn his elder brother, colonize Dalriada from Ireland with Irish Scots already Christian (Ann. Tigh. in an. 502; Chron. in Skene, pp. 130, 171, 197, 287, and Pref. cx.; Reeves ad Adamn. p. 433).

A.D. 559 or 566. Comgal, Abbat of the Irish Bangor, attempts unsuccessfully to plant a monastery on Tyree®.

A.D. 563. S. Columba comes to Hy'.

A.D. 565. S. Columba's mission to the Northern Picts.]

No documents exist for this period.

The "Australes Picti" were those who dwelt" infra montes" (Bæd. H. E., III. 4), i. e. south of the Mounth, and east of the "Dorsum Britannia" or Drum-Alban, = Kincardine, Forfar, Perthshire, &c., southwards to the Forth; the wall from Forth to Clyde being the continuation of their southern boundary, except so far as the petty states of Manann (Clackmannan and Linlithgow) and Calathros or Calatria (=the Carse of Falkirk) may have pierced that line (Skene, Chron. Pref. lxxx., lxxxi., who, however, antedates Galloway Picts to S. Ninian's time). S. Ninian's Pictish converts undoubtedly lived north of the Forth, since Bede identifies them with the "Australes Picti," and all the Picts according to him were "transmarinæ gentes," i. e. lived north of Forth and Clyde (H. E., I. 12). b See above, vol. I. P. 18.

e Legend of S. Servanus in Skene, Chron. PP. 412, sq.; Brev. Aberdon. Prop. SS. Pars Estiva, fol. xv.; Bishop Forbes, Kalendars of Scottish Saints; and Lib. Eccl. B. Terrenani de Arbuthnott, pp. lxxii. sq.

a i. e. of Argyllshire, with the western part of Dumbartonshire, to the Firth of Clyde, and northwards, the isle of Mull, &c., and from Lorn to the promontory of Ardnamurchan: the capital being Dunadd near Crinan (Skene, Pref. to Chron. p. cxiii.).

e See above, in vol. I. p. 116.

f "Navigatio Columcilli ad insulam Je etatis sue xlii." (Ann. Tig. in an. 563). So also Adamnan. in V. S. Col., I. 1, III. 4. Bede's date of A.D. 565 (H. E., III. 4) seems correctly explained (by Lanigan and others) of S. Columba's mission to the Picts.

PERIOD THE SECOND.

DURING THE SUPREMACY OF THE PRESBYTER-ABBATS OF HY,
A.D. 565-849.

[A.D. 565. Northern Picts converted by S. Columba.

A.D. 575. Irish and Scottish Dalriada declared politically separate at the (Irish) council
of Drumceat.

A.D. 603. Aidan of (Scottish) Dalriada defeated by the Angles at Degsastan (Bæd.
H. E., I. 34, V. 24).

A.D. 617-633. Oswald of Northumbria and his brothers take refuge among the Picts
and Scots and at Hy (Bæd. ib., III. 1, 3).

A.D. 635-664. Scottish Bishops of Lindisfarne, and Scottish missions from Northumbria to the Middle-Anglians, Mercians, and East-Saxons.

A.D. 681. Trumwini's Pictish episcopate at Abercorn.

Before A.D. 685. Aldfrid at Hy (Bæd. in V. S. Cuthb., XXIV.; V. S. Cutbb., auct.
anon. lib. III.).

A.D. 685. Defeat of Egfrid at Nectansmere, and end of Trumwini's Pictish episcopate.
A.D. 704. Failure of Adamnan to convert the Scottish and Irish Columbite monks to the
Roman Easter and tonsure.

A.D. 710, The Picts, and A.D. 716, the monks of Hy,-adopt the Roman Easter ;
and the former, the tonsure also: which, A.D. 718, the latter likewise
accept. But-

A.D. 717, The Columbite clergy are banished from the Pictish kingdom, of which
Abernethy probably obtains the primacy.

A.D. 736. Dalriada temporarily subject to Angus King of the Picts.

A.D. 778. Niall Frassach, and A.D. 791, Artgal, Kings respectively of Ireland and
Connaught, die as monks at Hy.

A.D. 792. Last mention of a King of (Scottish) Dalriada, Doncoircai, in the (Irish)
Annals.

A.D. 794, 806, 825. Northmen ravage Hy.

A.D. 829, 831, 849. Migrations of S. Columba's relics.

A.D. 842. Earliest (certain) record of "Keledei" in Scotland.

A.D. 843. Scottish (Dalriad) and Pictish kingdoms united under Kenneth Mac Alpin.
A.D. 849. Primacy transferred to Dunkeld.]

A.D. 565. Conversion of the Northern Picts by the preaching of

S. Columba.

BÆD., H. E., III. 4.—Anno Incarnationis Dominicæ quingentesimo sexagesimo quinto, quo tempore gubernaculum Romani imperii post Justinianum Justinus minor accepit, venit de Hibernia presbyter et abbas habitu et vita monachi insignis, nomine Columba, Brittaniam, prædicaturus verbum Dei provinciis septentrionalium Pictorum, hoc est, eis quæ arduis atque horrentibus montium jugis ab australibus eorum sunt regionibus sequestratæ. Namque ipsi australes Picti, qui intra eosdem montes habent sedes, multo ante tempore, ut per

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